13.2 THE NATURE OF LIQUIDS

2 What determinants determine the physical properties of a liquid?What is the connection between evaporation and also kinetic energy? When can a dynamic equilibrium exist between a liquid and also its vapor? Under what condition does boiling occur?

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3 A Model for Liquids According to the kinetic concept, both the pposts in gases and also the pposts in the liquids have kinetic power.

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This energy enables the pposts in gases and also liquids to circulation previous one an additional. Substances that deserve to circulation are classified as fluids. The capability of gases and also liquids to circulation allows them to concreate to the shape of their containers.
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4 There are no attractions in between the pwrite-ups in a gasThere are no attractions between the pwrite-ups in a gas. But the particles in a liquid are attracted to each other. The interplay in between the disruptive motions of pposts in a liquid and also the attractions among the particles determines the physical properties of liquids. Liquids are a lot more dense than gases. Increasing the push on a liquid has hardly any type of impact on its volume. For that reason, iquids and also solids are known as condensed says of matter

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5 Evaporation The convariation of a liquid to a gas or vapor is dubbed vaporization. When a convariation occurs at the surchallenge of a liquid that is not boiling, the procedure is referred to as evaporation. During evaporation, just those molecules with a particular minimum kinetic power have the right to escape from the surface of the liquid.

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6 Vapor Pressure Vapor pressure is a measure of the force exerted by a gas over a liquid. With time, the variety of pposts condense and also return to the liquid state. In a device at continuous vapor push, a dynamic equilibrium exists in between the vapor and also the liquid. The mechanism is in equilibrium bereason the price of evaporation of liquid equals the price of condensation of vapor. An increase in the temperature of a included liquid rises the vapor press. The vapor push of a liquid can be determined via an equipment dubbed a manometer.

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7 Boiling Point When a liquid is heated to a temperature at which pposts throughout the liquid have actually sufficient kinetic energy to vaporize, the liquid begins to boil. The temperature at which the vapor push of the liquid is just equal to the exterior pressure on the liquid is the boiling allude. Because a liquid boils when its vapor push is equal to the exterior pressure, liquids don’t always boil at the exact same temperature. Due to the fact that a liquid can have various boiling points depending upon pressure, the normal boiling suggest is characterized as the boiling point of the liquid at a press of kPa.

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8 Since a liquid can have actually miscellaneous boiling points depending on pressure, the normal boiling allude is identified as the boiling suggest of the liquid at a press of kPa.

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