Ap Biology Chapter 43

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Fig 43.1 How perform immune cells of pets recognize foreign cells? For the Cell Biology Video Leukocyte Adhesion and Rolling, go to Animation and Video Files. Figure 43.2 Rundown of pet immunity Figure 43.3 Phagocytosis Figure 43.4 An inducible inherent immune response Figure 43.5 Can a single antimicrobial peptide safeguard fruit flies versus infection? Figure 43.5 Can a solitary antimicrobial peptide safeguard fruit flies against infection? Figure 43.5 Can a solitary antimicrobial peptide safeguard fruit flies against infection? Figure 43.6 TLR signaling Figure 43.7 The huguy lymphatic system Figure 43.8 Major events in a neighborhood inflammatory response For the Cell Biology Video Chemotaxis of a Neutrophil, go to Animation and also Video Files. Figure 43.8 Major occasions in a regional inflammatory response For the Cell Biology Video Chemotaxis of a Neutrophil, go to Animation and also Video Files. Figure 43.8 Major occasions in a local inflammatory response For the Cell Biology Video Chemotaxis of a Neutrophil, go to Animation and also Video Files. Figure 43.9 Antigen receptors on lymphocytes Figure 43.9 Antigen receptors on lymphocytes Figure 43.9 Antigen receptors on lymphocytes Figure 43.10 Epitopes (antigenic determinants) Figure 43.11 Antigen presentation by an MHC molecule Figure 43.12 The interaction of T cells via antigen-presenting cells Figure 43.13 Immunoglobulin (antibody) gene replan Figure 43.14 Clonal selection of B cells Figure 43.15 The specificity of immunological memory Figure 43.16 An overwatch of the gained immune response Figure 43.16 An overcheck out of the got immune response Figure 43.16 An overview of the gained immune response Figure 43.17 The main duty of helper T cells in humoral and cell-mediated immune responses Figure 43.18 The killing action of cytotoxic T cells For the Discoexceptionally Video Fighting Cancer, go to Animation and Video Files. Figure 43.18 The killing activity of cytotoxic T cells For the Discoexceptionally Video Fighting Cancer, go to Animation and also Video Files. Figure 43.18 The killing activity of cytotoxic T cells For the Discoextremely Video Fighting Cancer, go to Animation and also Video Files. Figure 43.19 B cell activation in the huethical immune response Figure 43.19 B cell activation in the humoral immune response Figure 43.19 B cell activation in the huethical immune response Figure 43.19 B cell activation in the humoral immune response Figure 43.19 B cell activation in the huethical immune response Figure 43.20 The five antibody, or immunoglobulin (Ig), classes Figure 43.20 The five antibody, or immunoglobulin (Ig), classes Figure 43.20 The 5 antibody, or immunoglobulin (Ig), classes Figure 43.20 The 5 antibody, or immunoglobulin (Ig), classes Figure 43.20 The 5 antibody, or immunoglobulin (Ig), classes Figure 43.20 The 5 antibody, or immunoglobulin (Ig), classes Figure 43.21 Antibody-mediated mechanisms of antigen disposal Figure 43.21 Antibody-mediated mechanisms of antigen disposal Figure 43.21 Antibody-mediated mechanisms of antigen disposal Figure 43.21 Antibody-mediated mechanisms of antigen disposal Figure 43.22 Passive immunization of an infant occurs during breast-feeding For the Discoexceptionally Video Vaccines, go to Animation and Video Files. Figure 43.23 Mast cells, IgE, and also the allergic response Figure 43.24 X-ray of a hand dedeveloped by rheumatoid arthritis Figure 43.25 Antigenic variation in the parasite that causes sleeping sickness Figure 43.26 The progression of an untreated HIV infection

Chapter 43 Textbook Presentation

1. Chapter 43 The Immune System 2. Overview: Reconnaissance, Recognition, and Response Barriers assist an pet to protect itself from the many type of dangerous pathogens it might encounter The immune mechanism recognizes foreign bodies and also responds via the manufacturing of immune cells and also proteins Two significant kinds of defense have actually evolved: natural immunity and acquired immunity Innate immunity is current before any kind of exposure to ..." target="_blank"> 4. Innate immunity is current prior to any exposure to pathogens and also is efficient from the moment of birth It requires nonspecific responses to pathogens Innate immunity is composed of exterior barriers plus inner cellular and chemical defenses Acquired immunity , or adaptive immunity, develops ..." target="_blank"> 5. Acquired immunity , or adaptive immunity, develops after exposure to agents such as microbes, toxins, or various other international substances It requires an extremely particular response to pathogens 7. Concept 43.1: In natural immunity, recognition and also response count on shared traits of pathogens Both invertebprices and vertebrates depend on inherent immunity to fight infection Vertebrates likewise build obtained immune defenses In insects, an exo..." target="_blank"> 8. Innate Immunity of Invertebrates In insects, an exoskeleton made of chitin creates the first obstacle to pathogens The digestive device is safeguarded by low pH and also lysozyme , an enzyme that digests microbial cell walls Hemocytes circulate within hemolymph and lug out phagocytosis , the ingestion and digestion of foreign substances including bacteria Hemocytes likewise secrete antimicrobial peptides that ..." target="_blank"> 10. Hemocytes likewise secrete antimicrobial peptides that disrupt the plasma membranes of bacteria The immune device recognizes bacteria and fungi by ..." target="_blank"> 12. The immune device recognizes bacteria and fungi by frameworks on their cell walls An immune response varies with the course of pathogen encountered The immune mechanism of..." target="_blank"> 16. Innate Immunity of Vertebprices The immune system of mammals is the finest understood of the vertebprices Innate defenses include barrier defenses, phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides Additional defenses are distinctive to vertebrates: the inflammatory response and herbal killer cells Barrier defenses encompass the skin ..." target="_blank"> 17. Barrier Defenses Barrier defenses include the skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory, urinary, and also reproductive tracts Mucus traps and allows for the removal of microbes Many type of body fluids consisting of saliva, mucus, and tears are hostile to microbes The low pH of skin and also the digestive mechanism avoids expansion of microbes White blood cells (leukocy..." target="_blank"> 18. Cellular Innate Defenses White blood cells (leukocytes) engulf pathogens in the body Groups of pathogens are recognized by TLR , Toll-like receptors A white blood cell engulfs a microbe, then fuses wi..." target="_blank"> 20. A white blood cell engulfs a microbe, then fsupplies with a lysosome to ruin the microbe Tright here are different forms of phagocytic cells: Neutrophils engulf and ruin microbes Macropheras are component of the lymphatic device and are uncovered throughout the body Eosinophils discharge terrible enzymes Dendritic cells stimulate breakthrough of obtained immunity Peptides and also pr..." target="_blank"> 22. Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins Peptides and also proteins attribute in innate defense by attacking microbes straight or impeding their remanufacturing Interferon proteins administer inherent defense against viruses and help activate macrophperiods About 30 proteins comprise the enhance mechanism , which causes lysis of invading cells and helps trigger inflammation Following an injury, mast c..." target="_blank"> 23. Inflammatory Responses Following an injury, mast cells release histamine , which promotes transforms in blood vessels; this is part of the inflammatory response These alters rise regional blood supply and allow even more phagocytes and antimicrobial proteins to enter tconcerns Pus, a liquid affluent in white blood cells, dead microbes, and also cell debris, accumulates at the site of inflammation Inflammation can be either regional or systemic (throu..." target="_blank"> 27. Inflammation have the right to be either local or systemic (throughout the body) Fever is a systemic inflammatory response motivated by pyrogens released by macropheras, and also toxins from pathogens Septic shock is a life-threatening condition led to by an overwhelming inflammatory response All cells in the body (other than ..." target="_blank"> 28. Natural Killer Cells All cells in the body (except red blood cells) have actually a course 1 MHC protein on their surconfront Cancerous or infected cells no longer expush this protein; organic killer (NK) cells assault these damaged cells Some path..." target="_blank"> 29. Innate Immune System Evasion by Pathogens Some pathogens protect against damage by editing their surconfront to prevent recognition or by resisting breakdvery own adhering to phagocytosis Tuberculosis (TB) is one such disease and kills more than a million civilization a year 30. Concept 43.2: In got immunity, lymphocyte receptors carry out pathogen-particular acknowledgment White blood cells called lymphocytes acknowledge and respond to antigens, foreign molecules Lymphocytes that mature in the thymus above the heart are called T cells , and those that mature in bone marrowhead are referred to as B cells Lymphocytes contribute to immunological memory, an ..." target="_blank"> 31. Lymphocytes contribute to immunological memory, an intensified response to a foreign molecule encountered previously Cytokines are secreted by macrophages and dendritic cells to recruit and also activate lymphocytes B cells and also T cells..." target="_blank"> 32. Acquired Immunity: An Synopsis B cells and also T cells have receptor proteins that can bind to international molecules Each individual lymphocyte is specialized to identify a certain kind of molecule An antigen is ..." target="_blank"> 33. Antigen Recognition by Lymphocytes An antigen is any kind of foreign molecule to which a lymphocyte responds A single B cell or T cell has about 100,000 the same antigen receptors All antigen receptors on a single lymphocyte recogn..." target="_blank"> 37. All antigen receptors on a single lymphocyte recognize the same epitope, or antigenic determinant , on an antigen B cells offer climb to plasma cells , which secrete proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins B cell..." target="_blank"> 39. The Antigen Receptors of B Cells and T Cells B cell receptors bind to certain, undamaged antigens The B cell receptor is composed of 2 similar heavy chains and 2 identical light chains The tips of the chains form a continuous (C) region , and also each chain consists of a variable (V) region , so called bereason its amino acid sequence varies broadly from one B cell to another Secreted antibodies, or immunoglobulins, are struct..." target="_blank"> 40. Secreted antibodies, or immunoglobulins, are structurally equivalent to B cell receptors however absence transmembrane regions that anchor receptors in the plasma membrane Each T cell receptor consists of two different po..." target="_blank"> 41. Each T cell receptor consists of 2 various polypeptide chains The tips of the chain form a variable (V) region; the rest is a consistent (C) area T cells deserve to bind to an antigen that is complimentary or on the surchallenge of a microorganism Video: T Cell Receptors T cells bind to antigen pieces presented on a ho..." target="_blank"> 42. T cells bind to antigen fragments presented on a hold cell These antigen fragments are bound to cell-surchallenge proteins called MHC molecules MHC molecules are so named bereason they are encoded by a household of genes called the major histocompatibility complex In infected cells, MHC molecule..." target="_blank"> 43. The Role of the MHC In infected cells, MHC molecules bind and also transfer antigen pieces to the cell surconfront, a process called antigen presentation A nearby T cell have the right to then detect the antigen fragment shown on the cell’s surchallenge Depfinishing on their source, peptide antigens are tackled by different classes of MHC molecules Class I MHC molecules are discovered on virtually all nucl..." target="_blank"> 45. Class I MHC molecules are uncovered on nearly all nucleated cells of the body They display peptide antigens to cytotoxic T cells Class II MHC molecules are situated mostly on dendr..." target="_blank"> 47. Class II MHC molecules are located mainly on dendritic cells, macropheras, and also B cells Dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells are antigen-presenting cells that screen antigens to cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells The acquired immune device h..." target="_blank"> 48. Lymphocyte Advancement The acquired immune system has actually 3 crucial properties: Receptor diversity A absence of retask versus organize cells Immunological memory 49. Generation of Lymphocyte Diversity by Gene Replan Differences in the variable area account for specificity of antigen receptors The immunoglobulin ( Ig ) gene encodes one chain of the B cell receptor Many kind of different chains deserve to be produced from the exact same Ig chain gene by rearrangement of the DNA Rearranged DNA is transcribed and also translated and the antigen receptor created Antigen receptors are gene..." target="_blank"> 51. Origin of Self-Tolerance Antigen receptors are produced by random replan of DNA As lymphocytes mature in bone marrow or the thymus, they are tested for self-reactivity Lymphocytes through receptors particular for the body’s very own molecules are damaged by apoptosis, or rendered nonsensible In the b..." target="_blank"> 52. Amplifying Lymphocytes by Clonal Selection In the body tbelow are few lymphocytes through antigen receptors for any type of certain epitope The binding of a mature lymphocyte to an antigen induces the lymphocyte to divide quickly This proliferation of lymphocytes is dubbed clonal selection Two types of clones are produced: short-lived triggered effector cells and long-lived memory cells The initially exposure to a details antigen represents..." target="_blank"> 54. The first expocertain to a certain antigen represents the major immune response Throughout this time, effector B cells dubbed plasma cells are produced, and also T cells are activated to their effector develops In the secondary immune response , memory cells facilitate a much faster, more efficient response Animation: Role of B Cells 56. Concept 43.3: Acquired immunity defends against infection of body cells and also fluids Acquired immunity has actually 2 branches: the huethical immune response and the cell-mediated immune response Huethical immune response involves activation and also clonal selection of B cells, resulting in production of secreted antibodies Cell-mediated immune response entails activation and also clonal selection of cytotoxic T cells Helper T cells help both responses A..." target="_blank"> 60. Helper T Cells: A Response to Nearly All Antigens A surconfront protein dubbed CD4 binds the course II MHC molecule This binding keeps the helper T cell joined to the antigen-presenting cell while activation occurs Activated helper T cells secrete cytokines that stimulate various other lymphocytes Animation: Helper T Cells Cyt..." target="_blank"> 62. Cytotoxic T Cells: A Response to Infected Cells Cytotoxic T cells are the effector cells in cell-mediated immune response Cytotoxic T cells make CD8 , a surchallenge protein that significantly enhances interaction between a targain cell and also a cytotoxic T cell Binding to a course I MHC complex on an infected cell activates a cytotoxic T cell and also makes it an active killer The triggered cytotoxic T cell secretes proteins that destroy the infected taracquire cell Animation: Cytotoxic T Cells The ..." target="_blank"> 66. B Cells: A Response to Extracellular Pathogens The huethical response is identified by secretion of antibodies by B cells Activation of B cells is aided by cytokines and also antigen binding to helper T cells Clonal selection of B cells generates antibody-secreting plasma cells, the effector cells of humoral immunity The 5 major classes of antibodi..." target="_blank"> 72. Antibody Classes The five significant classes of antibodies, or immunoglobulins, differ in circulation and feature Polyclonal antibodies are the commodities of many kind of various clones of B cells following expocertain to a microbial antigen Monoclonal antibodies are all set from a single clamong B cells grown in culture Neutralization ..." target="_blank"> 79. The Role of Antibodies in Immunity Neutralization occurs as soon as a pathogen have the right to no longer infect a hold because it is bound to an antibody Opsonization occurs as soon as antibodies bound to antigens boost phagocytosis Antibodies in addition to proteins of the match system generate a membrane strike facility and cell lysis Animation: Antibodies Active immunity de..." target="_blank"> 84. Active and Passive Immunization Active immunity develops normally in response to an infection It deserve to also develop following immunization , also called vaccination In immunization, a nonpathogenic create of a microbe or part of a microbe elicits an immune response to an immunological memory Passive immunity offers instant, short-term pr..." target="_blank"> 85. Passive immunity offers immediate, momentary security It is conferred naturally once IgG crosses the placenta from mom to fetus or once IgA passes from mom to infant in breast milk It have the right to be conferred artificially by injecting antibodies into a nonimmune perboy Cells transferred from one perchild ..." target="_blank"> 87. Immune Rejection Cells transferred from one perkid to another can be attacked by immune defenses This complicates blood transfusions or the transplant of tconcerns or organs Antigens on red blood cells identify ..." target="_blank"> 88. Blood Groups Antigens on red blood cells identify whether a perchild has actually blood type A (A antigen), B (B antigen), AB (both A and also B antigens), or O (neither antigen) Antibodies to nonself blood forms exist in the body Transfusion with incompatible blood leads to destruction of the transfoffered cells Recipient-donor combicountries can be fatal or safe MHC molecules are diff..." target="_blank"> 89. Tconcern and Organ Transplants MHC molecules are different among genetically nonthe same individuals Differences in MHC molecules stimulate rejection of tissue grafts and also organ transplants Chances of effective transplantation increase if d..." target="_blank"> 90. Chances of effective transplantation rise if donor and also recipient MHC tproblem types are well matched Immunosuppressive drugs facilitate transplantation Lymphocytes in bone marrowhead transplants might cause the donor tworry to refuse the recipient 91. Concept 43.4: Disruption in immune mechanism function have the right to elicit or exacerbate illness Some pathogens have evolved to diminish the efficiency of hold immune responses 92. Exaggerated, Self-Directed, and Diminimelted Immune Responses If the delicate balance of the immune device is disrupted, results selection from minor to often fatal Allergies are exaggerated (hypersensitive..." target="_blank"> 93. Allergies Allergies are exaggerated (hypersensitive) responses to antigens called allergens In localized allergies such as hay fever, IgE antibodies produced after initially expocertain to an allergen connect to receptors on mast cells The following time the allergen enters the body, it bind..." target="_blank"> 95. The following time the allergen enters the body, it binds to mast cell–linked IgE molecules Mast cells release histamine and other mediators that cause vascular changes leading to typical allergy symptoms An acute allergic response deserve to cause anaphylactic shock, a life-threatening reactivity that can happen within seconds of allergen expocertain In people with autoimmune..." target="_blank"> 96. Autoimmune Diseases In people with autoimmune diseases , the immune mechanism loses tolerance for self and transforms against specific molecules of the body Autoimmune conditions encompass systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and multiple sclerosis Modeprice ex..." target="_blank"> 98. Exertion, Stress, and the Immune System Moderate exercise enhances immune system function Psychological anxiety has actually been shown to disrupt hormonal, nervous, and immune systems Inborn immunodeficiency ..." target="_blank"> 99. Immunodeficiency Diseases Inborn immunodeficiency outcomes from hereditary or developmental defects that proccasion correct functioning of innate, humoral, and/or cell-mediated defenses Acquired immunodeficiency outcomes from expocertain to chemical and biological agents Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by a virus Pathoge..." target="_blank"> 100. Acquired Immune System Evasion by Pathogens Pathogens have evolved mechanisms to strike immune responses Thturbulent antigenic variation, so..." target="_blank"> 101. Antigenic Variation Thturbulent antigenic variation, some pathogens are able to adjust epitope expression and also proccasion acknowledgment The huguy influenza virus mutates rapidly, and also brand-new flu vaccines should be made yearly Human being virsupplies sometimes exadjust genes through the virprovides of domesticated pets This poses a hazard as humale immune systems are unable to acknowledge the new viral strain Some virprovides may remajor in a host in an ina..." target="_blank"> 103. Latency Some virprovides may remajor in a hold in an inenergetic state dubbed latency Herpes simplex virsupplies can be current in a humale hold without leading to symptoms Human immunodefici..." target="_blank"> 104. Attack on the Immune System: HIV Person immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects helper T cells The loss of helper T cells impairs both the huethical and also cell-mediated immune responses and leads to AIDS HIV eludes the immune system bereason of antigenic variation and an capacity to remajor latent while included into organize DNA Animation: HIV Reproductive Cycle People with AIDS are highly vulnerable to opportun..." target="_blank"> 106. People via AIDS are extremely susceptible to opportunistic infections and also cancers that take benefit of an immune system in collapse The spcheck out of HIV is a global problem The ideal method for slowing this spread is education and learning around practices that transmit the virus The frequency of certain cancer..." target="_blank"> 107. Cancer and also Immunity The frequency of certain cancers rises once the immune response is impaired Two argued explacountries are Immune device typically suppresses cancerous cells Increased inflammation increases the hazard of cancer Distinguish in between inna..." target="_blank"> 110. You should currently be able to: Distinguish in between inherent and also acquired immunity Name and describe 4 forms of phagocytic cells Describe the inflammation response Distinguish in between the adhering to pairs of terms: a..." target="_blank"> 111. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: antigens and antibodies; antigen and epitope; B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes; antibodies and also B cell receptors; major and secondary immune responses; huethical and cell-mediated response; energetic and also passive immunity Exordinary how B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes recognize specific antigens Exsimple why the antigen receptors of lymphocytes are tested for self-retask Describe clonal selection and also distinguish in between e..." target="_blank"> 112. Describe clonal selection and also identify between effector cells and memory cells Describe the cellular basis for immunological memory Exsimple how a single antigen deserve to provoke a robust humoral response Compare the processes of neutralization and opsonization Describe the function of MHC in the rejection of tworry..." target="_blank"> 113. Describe the duty of MHC in the rejection of tworry transplants Describe an allergic reaction, consisting of the duties of IgE, mast cells, and histamine Describe some of the mechanisms that pathogens have actually developed to thwart the immune response of their hosts List tactics that have the right to alleviate the risk of HIV transmission