Ap Biology Equations And Formulas

If you"re going to be taking the AP Biology exam, we have some great news! Throughout the AP test, you"ll have access to a formula sheet full of valuable equations and definitions.

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However, you"ll should have actually an excellent sense of what"s on the AP Bio formula sheet and exactly how to usage it in order for it to be useful to you in the time of the test.

That"s where we come in! In this overview, we go over every little thing you have to know around the AP Bio recommendation sheet. We"ll define eexceptionally equation and also interpretation it consists of, show you what the formula sheet looks like, go over important indevelopment it does not contain however that you must understand, and provide you tips on how to obtain the the majority of out of it.


2021 AP Test Changes Due to COVID-19

Due to the continuous COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, AP tests will certainly now be held over three different sessions in between May and also June. Your test dates, and also whether or not your tests will certainly be virtual or on paper, will depend on your school. To learn more around how every one of this is going to occupational and also obtain the latest information on test dates, AP virtual review, and what these changes suggests for you, be certain to inspect out our 2021 AP COVID-19 FAQ short article.

What"s on the AP Bio Formula Sheet?

The AP Biology formula sheet is actually 2 peras filled via formulas and also definitions that might aid you throughout the AP exam. The formula sheet will certainly be at the beginning of both the multiple-alternative and also free-response sections of the exam, so you"ll have actually access to it for the whole AP test. That means you do not have to memorize any of the indevelopment the formula sheet includes!

So what"s on this AP Bio reference sheet? Check it out here, as well as the screenshots below (click each photo to enlarge).


The AP Biology equation sheet covers six major topics. Below the images, we"ll list what equations and also information each topic has on the formula sheet.

Statistical evaluation and also probabilityRate and growthSurconfront location and volumeWater potentialDilutionGibbs Free Energy

Statistical Analysis and also Probability

FormulasMeanStandard deviationStandard error of the expect (you will not actually calculate using this equation on the exam; it"s just for reference)Chi-squareHardy-Weinberg equations (2)


Chi-square tableLaws of probcapacity (2)Metric prefixes (8)Degrees of flexibility explanationDefinitions for:ModeMedianMeanRange

Rate and also Growth

FormulasRatePopulation growthExponential growthLogistic growthTemperature coefficientMain efficiency calculation

Surconfront Area and also Volume

FormulasVolume of a sphereVolume of a rectangular solidVolume of a appropriate cylinderSurface area of a sphereSurchallenge location of a cubeSurface area of a rectangular solid

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Water Potential

FormulasWater potentialSolute potential of a solution


Explacountry of water potential in an open up container



Gibbs Free Energy

FormulasGibbs free energy


FormulaspH (you won"t be compelled to percreate calculations with this equation on the test)

In all, there are 23 formulas on the AP bio formula sheet. However before, as you have the right to check out by glancing at the formula sheet, it consists of a lot more information than simply 23 formulas. That"s bereason the formula sheet has multiple tricks that recognize the different symbols offered in formulas. This is extremely beneficial information to have because it offers even more context to the formulas. For instance, while the water potential section of the formula sheet only includes two formulas, it has actually a vital explaining symbols for push potential, solution potential, ionization consistent, molar concentration, push consistent, and also temperature in Kelvin.

When you"re looking at an equation prefer, say the one for Gibbs complimentary energy, also if you recognize (or can view on the formula sheet) that the formula is ΔG = ΔH – TΔS, that doesn"t mean a lot unmuch less you understand what each symbol represents. So in enhancement to offering you with formulas, the AP Biology equation sheet also gives you the information necessary to usage those equations more quickly.


What Isn"t on the AP Bio Formula Sheet That You Need to Kcurrently for the Exam?

The AP Biology recommendation sheet does a wonderful job of spanning the formulas you should know for the exam, however tbelow are some various other crucial pieces of indevelopment pertained to the formulas that will certainly be valuable for you to have memorized.

Population Curves

Tbelow are numerous equations about population expansion and also change on the AP Biology equation sheet, yet you have to also know what various population curves look favor.

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Tright here are 2 primary ones to know:

Exponential Growth (J-curve)

Exponential growth is as soon as a population"s per capita growth price stays the very same regardmuch less of the populace size which causes the populace to prosper quicker as it gets bigger. This renders the population development take the shape of a "J" once graphed. At some point, this type of rapid populace growth will certainly be quit by a limiting factor in the atmosphere, such as lack of food or area.


Logistic Growth (S-curve)

Populations mirroring logistic development have actually their per capita development shrinking as the population gets closer to the delivering capacity(k), which is the maximum population dimension possible in the atmosphere. The populace levels off as soon as it reaches transporting capacity, because of borders somewhere, such as food, shelter, or area.


pH Rules

There"s one lonely pH formula on the AP Bio reference sheet, yet pH is an essential topic, and there are several other formulas and also rules related to it that you need to recognize. Here are 3 advantageous pH formulas:

To convert in between and also pH: pH = -log (this equation is consisted of on the formula sheet)

To convert between and pOH: pOH = -log

For any kind of aqueous solution at 25∘C: pH + pOH = 14

It"s unlikely you"ll must actually perform calculations making use of these formulas, yet they"re crucial to understand so that you deserve to understand just how pH, pOH, , and , relate to each other. For instance, by looking at the initially equation over and placing in some sample numbers, you can check out that as gets smaller, pH goes up, and also as gets bigger, pH goes dvery own.

You might additionally be asked if a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. Here are the rules for that:

pH of less than 7 indicates it"s acidicpH of exactly 7 implies it"s neutralpH of higher than 7 implies it"s basic


Tips for Getting the Most Out of the AP Bio Formula Sheet

As you can watch, the AP Biology equation sheet deserve to be exceptionally valuable during the exam because it conserves you the time of memorizing roughly two dozen equations. In this area we discuss 3 tips to ensure you gain the most out of it.

#1: Review It, But Don"t Memorize It

Some students think that, bereason they"ll have actually the AP Bio formula sheet with them on exam day, they do not must concern around it beforehand also. However, you don"t desire to waste precious time in the time of your AP exam searching via the formulas and also trying to number out which one will be a lot of advantageous to you. This suggests you"ll should carry out some evaluation of the formula sheet well before the test. You need to aim to have a general concept of what is included on the formula sheet, and where the different equations are. Then, throughout an exam, you can uncover the particular formula you"re trying to find easily.

#2: Know How to Use Every Formula

The AP Bio reference sheet contains 23 formulas, and also you have to recognize how each of them occupational prior to test day. The College Board isn"t one for including extraneous indevelopment on formula sheets, so if a formula is contained on the sheet, that indicates there"s a solid chance you"ll have to use it on the exam. Even though you won"t use all the formulas on test day, you need to understand how they all job-related. You don"t want to spend your exam trying to learn how to usage, say the Gibbs totally free power formula and also hoping you got it right!

Well before exam day, be certain to go with eexceptionally formula on the sheet and also make sure you understand it and know how to usage it. If you"re struggling with one or more formulas, find wright here it is debated in your textbook, or ask your teacher for aid.

#3: Take Practice Tests With the Formula Sheet

Answering exercise questions and taking exercise tests utilizing the AP Bio formula sheet is likewise vital to doing well on the exam. You need to take several AP Biology practice tests prior to the actual exam, and also for each of them you should use the official formula sheet. Your teacher will certainly additionally likely offer you a copy of the formula sheet for your in-course exams, so you have the right to get some exercise in tbelow as well.

If you need aid finding exercise tests, check out our guide particularly on where to find the ideal AP Biology practice inquiries and tests.

What"s Next?

Is AP Biology especially complex compared to various other APs?Read this write-up for a in-depth conversation on the difficulty level of the course and also exam.

Want some even more guidance preparing for the AP Biology exam?We"ve developed the absolute ideal AP Biology examine guide for you to usage, and also it has everything you need to ace the test.

Itching to get began with AP Bio prep ideal away?We covercell theory,enzymes, cell frameworks (endoplasmic reticulumandcell membrane),homologous and also analogous structures, and thephotosynthesis equationwith subject-specific guides.