AP BIOLOGY FREE RESPONSE 2002

2002 AP BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONSBIOLOGYSECTION II Time1 hour and also 30 minutes

Directions: Answer all inquiries. Answers have to be in essay form. Overview create is not acceptable. Labeled diagrams might be supplied to supplement discussion, yet in no situation will a diagram alone suffice. It is vital that you check out each question completely before you start to compose. Write all your answers on the peras complying with the concerns in this booklet. 1. The humale genome illustrates both continuity and also change. (a) Describe the necessary attributes of two of the procedures/approaches listed below. For each of the procedures/ methods you describe, define exactly how its application contributes to expertise genes. The usage of a bacterial plasmid to clone and also sequence a huguy gene Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) evaluation (b) All humans are almost similar genetically in coding sequences and also have actually many proteins that are similar in structure and attribute. However, each humale has actually a distinctive DNA fingerprint. Exsimple this apparent contradiction.

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2002 AP BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS2. The activities of organisms adjust at continuous time intervals. These transforms are called organic rhythms. The graph depicts the activity cycle over a 48-hour duration for a fictional team of mammals called pointy-eared bombats, found on an isolated island in the tempeprice zone.

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(a) Describe the cycle of activity for the bombats. Discuss how three of the complying with determinants could affect the physiology and/or actions of the bombats to bring about this pattern of task. temperature food availcapability existence of predators social behavior

(b) Propose a hypothesis concerning the result of light on the cycle of activity in bombats. Describe a controlled experiment that can be performed to test this hypothesis, and the results you would expect. 3. The intricacy of framework and function varies extensively throughout the animal kingdom. In spite of this variation, animals exhilittle common processes. These incorporate the following. move of materials response to stimuli gas exadjust locomotion

(a) Choose two of the procedures over and for each, describe the relevant structures and exactly how they function to accomplish the process in the following phyla. Cnidaria (e.g., hydra, jellyfish) Annelida (e.g., earthworm) Chorinformation (e.g., mouse) (b) Explain the adaptive (evolutionary) value(s) of the structural examples you defined in part a.

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2002 AP BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS4. The adhering to experiment was designed to test whether various concentration gradients influence the price of diffusion. In this experiment, four remedies (0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl , and 10% NaCl) were tested under identical conditions. Fifteen milliliters (mL) of 0% NaCl were put right into a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is permeable to Na+, Cl-, and also water. The same was done for each NaCl solution. Each bag was subcombined in a separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water. The concentration of NaCl in mg/L in the water external each bag was measured at 40-second intervals. The outcomes from the 5% bag are displayed in the table below. CONCENTRATION IN mg/L OF NaCl OUTSIDE THE 5% NaCl BAG Time (seconds) 0 40 80 120 160 NaCl (mg/L) 0 130 220 320 400

(a) On the axes provided, graph the information for the 5% NaCl solution. (b) Using the exact same collection of axes, draw and label three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and also 10% NaCl remedies. Exordinary your predictions. (c) Farmlands situated close to seaside areas are being intimidated by encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. In regards to water movement into or out of plant cells, define why seawater might decrease chop manufacturing. Include a conversation of water potential in your answer.

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AP Biology 2002 Exam *** Answers

AP BIOLOGY 2002 SCORING GUIDELINESConcern 1 1. (a)

Maximum 4 points for this component of the question (1 suggest earned for each bullet below, approximately 4) (Maximum 3 points, 1 for each bullet) Describe the usage of plasmid for cloning/sequencing a huguy gene Cut plasmid through restriction enzyme Cut/isolate humale sequence with the matching restriction enzyme Mix/anneal/ligate Introduce recombinant plasmid into bacteria Select recombinant bacteria (e.g., antibiotic resistance, fluorescence, reporter gene, and so on.) Bacterial remanufacturing offered to amplify the sequence Describe either degradative (Maxam-Gilbert) or dideoxy (Sanger) approach to generate pieces Electrophoresis to sepaprice pieces Read the sequence (automated method is OK) (Maximum 3 points, 1 for each bullet) Exsimple the contribution of this procedure Source of the DNA is improduct to cloning Used to develop transgenic organisms Used to make human proteins (e.g., insulin, HGH) Understanding gene structure/regulation Comparative genomics Growth of gene therapies Making gene library Amplifying a details sequence

Maximum 4 points for this component of the question (1 suggest earned for each bullet listed below, as much as 4) (Maximum 3 points, 1 for each bullet) Describe PCR Heat to sepaprice strands Add primers Cool to anneal Add polymerase and/or nucleotides Specification of warm secure (Taq) polymerase Description of thermocycling process Repetition of process

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AP BIOLOGY 2002 SCORING GUIDELINESInquiry 1 (contd.) (Maximum 3 points, 1 for each bullet) Exsimple the contribution of this procedure Allows amplification of incredibly tiny samples Replicates/amplifies a characterized area Can be automated to enable for much faster growth of expertise Can be supplied for forensics Can be offered for diagnosis Evolutionary applications Other Maximum 4 points for this component of the question (1 point earned for each bullet listed below, up to 4) (Maximum 3 points, 1 for each bullet) Describe RFLP evaluation DNA sample cut with restriction enzyme(s) Separation of pieces (electrophoresis) Description/elaboration of electrophoresis (charge/size/apparatus) Visualize fragments (probes, dyes, blots) Compare fragment sizes/mobility Compare single and also double digests (2 or even more restriction enzymes) Compare individuals/species/organisms/tissue samples (Maximum 3 points, one for each bullet) Explain the contribution of RFLP analysis Trace RFLPs as hereditary markers in households Diagnose disease/carriers/prenatal samples Prepare fingerprints (for forensics, and so on.) Order fragments for physical mapping Compare genomes of various species/evolutionary relationships Locate the flanking regions of the gene/sequence Find mutations Individual bands have the right to be used for additionally evaluation Can recognize existence of sequence without knowing its function

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AP BIOLOGY 2002 SCORING GUIDELINESInquiry 1 (contd.) 1. (b) Maximum 4 points Exordinary the contradiction Sources of distinction in DNA fingerprint Variation in non-coding product (introns, spacers, minisatellites, junk, transposable elements) Point mutations, little deletions, SNPs (single NT polymorphisms) Variable variety of tandem repeats (VNTRs/STRs) Recognition of distinctions A small percent difference of an extremely huge genome outcomes in a large number of nucleotide differences PCR-based fingerprinting: differences uncovered by wbelow primers anneal Variation in restriction enzyme cutting sites Similarities among proteins Redundancy in the code for amino acids Neutral/silent mutation does not change the feature of the protein Caution: No explanation points in (a) without an attempted summary of procedure Order of procedure points is not important if they are logical and also accurate No credit for mutations resulting in brand-new phenoforms Codons specify amino acids (not proteins)

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AP BIOLOGY 2002 SCORING GUIDELINESQuestion 2 2. (a) A maximum of 5 points Description of the cycle of activity (1 point) A student can earn a allude if he/she accurately summarized the graph. A simplistic statement such as, Bombats are active during the day and also quiet at night which ignored the form and also apparent peaks and valleys of the graph did not receive the allude. To earn this suggest, the student had to recognize the peak of activity at noon, midday, or 12:00 p.m., AND suggest a reduced activity at night. The student could additionally be particular about the lowest task being at midnight, or 12:00 a.m. The summary had actually to be plainly distinguishable from the remainder of the answer and also not simply implied in one more part of the response. Discussion of just how THREE components could affect the physiology and/or actions resulting in the cyclic task pattern (1 allude each) To earn points here, each