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The procedure whereby plants, algae, and some bacteria transform light power to chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugars. This procedure requires an input of carbon dioxide(CO2) and also water (H2O) and produces oxygen gas (O2) as a waste product.
An organism that cannot make its own organic food molecules from inorganic ingredients and also need to achieve them by consuming various other organisms or their organic products; a customer or a decomposer in a food chain.
An organism that provides organic food molecules from carbon dioxide, water, and various other not natural raw materials: a plant, alga, or autotrophic bacterium; the trophic level that supports all others in a food chain or food internet.
An organism that provides its very own food from inorganic ingredients, thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or their molecules. Plants, algae, and photoartificial bacteria are autotrophs.

See more: nature ecology and evolution

The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as glucose, and also the storage of potential energy in a type that cells can use to perdevelop work; requires glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, the electron deliver chain, and also chemiosmosis.
Brief for reduction-oxidation reaction; a chemical reactivity in which electrons are lost from one substance (oxidation) and also added to an additional (reduction). Oxidation and also reduction constantly take place together.
An electron carrier (a molecule that carries electrons) associated in cellular respiration and also photosynthesis. NADH carries electrons from glucose and also various other fuel molecules and deposits them at the optimal of an electron carry chain. NADH is produced during glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle.
A series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons throughout the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP; situated in the inner membrane of mitochondria, the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, and the plasma membrane of prokaryotes.
The multiaction chemical breakdvery own of a molecule of glucose into 2 molecules of pyretic acid; the initially phase of cellular respiration in all organisms; occurs in the cytoplasmic liquid.
The metabolic cycle that is sustained by acetyl CoA created after glycolysis in cellular respiration. Chemical reactions in the cycle finish the metabolic breakdvery own of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide. The cycle occurs in the matrix of mitochondria and also gives the majority of of the NADH molecules that lug power to the electron deliver chains. Also described as the Krebs cycle.
A redox (oxidation-reduction) reactivity in which one or more electrons are transferred to carrier molecules. A series of such reactions, referred to as an electron transport chain, deserve to release the energy stored in high-energy molecules such as glucose.
A protein cluster, discovered in a cellular membrane (including the inner membrane of mitochondria, the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, and also the plasma membrane of prokaryotes), that provides the power of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP from ADP. An ATP synthase gives a port with which hydrogen ions (h+) diffuse.
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