BLACK SAGE SCIENTIFIC NAME

l>Salusing mellifera
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Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) FEIS Home Page

Index of Species Information

SPECIES: Salby means of mellifera
Introductory Distribution and Occurrence Management Considerations Botanical and Ecological Characteristics Fire Ecology Fire Effects References
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Babsence sage flowering in Pinnacles National Monument. Creative Commons picture by Keir Morse.

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Introductory

SPECIES: Salvia melliferaAUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: McMurray, Nancy E. 1990. Salby means of mellifera. In: Fire Effects Indevelopment System, . U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foremainder Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.kaupunkiopas.com/database/feis/plants/shrub/salmel/all.html <>.Revisions: Imperiods were included on 14 August 2019.ABBREVIATION: SALMELSYNONYMS: NoneNRCS PLANT CODE: SAME3COMMON NAMES: babsence sageTAXONOMY: The scientific name of black sage is Salthrough mellifera Environment-friendly (Lamiaceae) <19>. Tright here are no recognized infrataxa <19>.Babsence sage hybridizes with a variety of Salvia species consisting of whitesage (S. apiana), purple sage (S. leucophylla), and chia (S.columbariae). Hybrid populaces are fairly uncommon, but, andare mainly restricted to sevecount disturbed locations <4,9>.LIFE FORM: Shrubkaupunkiopas.comERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special statusOTHER STATUS: NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Salvia melliferaGENERAL DISTRIBUTION: Black sage is spread in the Coast Ranges of California from ContraCosta and western Stanislaus counties southward right into Baja California<5,40>. It also occurs on the Channel Islands off the coast of southernThe golden state <5,35>.
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Distribution of black sage. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2019. The PLANTS Database. National Plant File Team, Greensboro, NC. <2019, August 14> <34262>.
ECOSYSTEMS: FRES30 Desert shrub FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrubSTATES: CA MEXICOBLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS: 3 Southern Pacific Border 7 Lower Basin and also RangeKUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS: K033 Chaparral K034 Montane chaparral K035 Coastal sagebrush K042 Creosote bush - bursageSAF COVER TYPES: NoneSRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES: 204 North seaside shrub 205 Coastal sage shrub 206 Chamise chaparral 207 Scrub oak mixed chaparral 208 Ceanotherefore combined chaparral 211 Creosotebush scrub 212 Blackbush 501 Saltbush-greasewoodHABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: Black sage is a shrub component of seaside sage scrub, chaparral, anddesert scrub neighborhoods throughout much of The golden state <10,20,34>.Publiburned classifications listing black sage as a dominant component ofthe vegetation are presented below.Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial organic areas of The golden state <15>Vegetation forms of the San Bernardino Mountains <17>The community complace of California coastal sage scrub <28>A vegetation classification device applied to southern The golden state <42>Common associates include <12,15,28,51,54>:Coastal sage scrub: California sagebrush (Artemisia californica),California buckwwarm (Eriogonum fasciculatum), white sage,purple sage, California encelia (Encelia californica), commondeerweed (Lotus scoparius), lemonade sumac (Rhus integrifolia),chaparral yucca (Yucca whipplei), bush monkeyflower (Mimulusaurantiacus), bluedick (Brodiaea pulchella), brome (Bromusspp.), filaree (Erodium spp.), mustards (Brassica spp.), andschismus (Schismus spp.).Chaparral: chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), white sage,ceanothus (Ceanotherefore spp.), manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.),laurel sumac (Malosma laurina), The golden state buckwheat, and poison-oak(Toxicodendron diversilobum).Desert scrub: creosotebush (Larrea tridentata), whiteburrobush (Hymenolea salsola), and also staghorn cholla (Opuntiaechinocarpa).
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Babsence sage habitat in Santa Barbara County. Creative Commons picture by Brent Miller.

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Salby means of melliferaIMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: Black sage is mostly taken into consideration of bit importance to livestock orbig game <2>. Although residential lamb and also goats may browse plants tosome degree <47,57>, deer hardly ever utilize black sage <16,27,35>. Rodentsmake limited use of black sage browse <2,57>. On chaparral sites insouthern California, woodrats gather and keep the leaves forconsumption throughout the winter <18>. Sage (Salthrough ssp.) seeds are astaple food of numerous birds and small mammals <57>. Birds whichutilize sage seeds include the Gambel"s quail and also scaled quail <47>.PALATABILITY: Black sage browse is mainly unpalatable to many livestock and wildlifebecause of its pungent odor and bitter taste <27>.NUTRITIONAL VALUE: NO-ENTRYCOVER VALUE: Babsence sage presumably gives nesting and also hiding cover for numerousbirds and tiny mammals.

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VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: Black sage is a perfect revegetation species bereason of itsdrought-resistance, spanalysis halittle bit, and fast development price <6,16,45>.It is recommfinished for use in greenbelts and parkmethods, as well as inareas wright here restoration of seaside sage scrub habitat is wanted <45>.Seedling establishment is great when fresh seed is hand-broadactors orhydroseeded in December to mid-February <16,45>. Horton <16> cautionsthat seeds need to not be soaked before sowing bereason soaking outcomes ina gelatinous mass of seeds.In southerly California, black sage is recommfinished for erosion controlplantings within coastal sage scrub areas <6,16>. Suitable sitesencompass sunny slopes with either shallow or deep soils at elevationsbelow 6,000 feet (1,830 m). Survival of bareroot nursery stock was 44percent as soon as planted in soils 6 feet (1.8 m) deep at an elevation of2,700 feet (823 m); survival of 2-year-old wild seedling transplants was24 percent <16>. Established plants often reach complete stature within 5years <45>.OTHER USES AND VALUES: Native Americans have actually offered babsence sage for culinary purposes. Seedswere parched and also ground right into a meal supplied in baking. Crushed leaves andstems were offered as a mint-flavored condiment <2,3>.Like many type of coastal sage scrub species, babsence sage is rather at risk toair pollution damages from sulhair dioxide and perhaps ozone.Consequently, it is an effective biological monitor of air air pollution forareas of southern The golden state <53>. It is concerned as among the besthoney plants alengthy the Pacific Coast <57>.OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Babsence sage increases on heavily grazed sites <35>. It has actually becomeleading over tiny areas on Santa Cruz Island as a result of years of severeovergrazing by feral animals <35>.

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Salusing melliferaGENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Black sage is a aboriginal, semideciduous, subligneous, malacophyllous(soft-leaved) subshrub that grows between 3.3 and 6.6 feet (1-2 m) tall<16,21,32,40,55>. Plants are openly branched and also spreading <16,40,47>.The square stems are green or purple as soon as young yet turn brownish-graythrough age <2>. The aromatic leaves are dark green and wrinkled abovewith lighter-colored undersides <2,40>. Flowers are 0.5 inch (1.25 cm)long, pale blue or white, and also arranged in compact whorls spaced atintervals alengthy the flowering stalk <2,40>. The fruit is a smooth, darkbrown, dehiscent nutlet about 0.08 inch (2 mm) long <22,40>.Black sage is shenable rooted <16>. The much branched and fibrous rootdevice seldom exhas a tendency 2 feet (0.6 m) listed below the soil surface with themajority of roots focused in the peak 5 inches (12.5 cm) of soil<14,16>. Longevity of babsence sage is approximated at 20 to 30 years<16,32>.RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: PhanerophyteREGENERATION PROCESSES: Black sage reproduces by both sex-related and also vegetative implies. Seedlingrecruitment and vegetative rejuvenation take place automatically adhering to fireand in the time of extfinished fire-totally free intervals <20,21,32>.Seed reproduction: Babsence sage flowers nearly each year once plants haveestabliburned <22>. The little, lightweight seed is commonly dispersedduring the summer <22>. Although seed longevity is not recorded forbabsence sage, seeds of carefully connected chia remain viable for at leastern adecade under laboratory storage <20>.Black sage exhibits a facility germicountry behavior that permits seedlingestablishment under a number of eco-friendly conditions. Because seedgerminates easily when exposed to light <25,36>, black sage invadesdisturbed locations. Keeley <21> tape-recorded 23 percent germicountry when seedswere incubated in the light at 73 levels F (23 deg C). Many seedsgerminated within the initially week. Germination increased to 50 percentonce seeds were exposed to alternating temperatures of 55 levels F and79 degrees F (13 levels C and also 26 degrees C) for 12 hrs each. Keeley<20> argues that alternating diurnal temperatures such as these arelikely near the soil surchallenge of gaps within undisturbed chaparral andcoastal sage scrub communities and also may account for babsence sage seedlingrecruitment in canopy gaps. Germination is inhibited by darkness <20>.Seeds buried in the soil remain dormant and also call for the visibility ofburned timber for germicountry <21>.Vegetative regeneration: Babsence sage might spreview vegetatively byproducing adventitious roots along decumbent branches <14,58>.Established people additionally rejuvenate their canopies via thecontinuous manufacturing of brand-new basal sprouts from epicormic buds at thestem base <32>. Following disturbances such as fire or cutting, blacksage sprouts from making it through adventitious buds on the root crown<20,33,59>.SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Black sage generally occurs at low elevations on the coastal and also inlandsides of the California Coast Range. Sites include dry slopes andbenches below 3,000 feet (915 m) <2,40>. Dominant Salby means of speciessegregate by moisture preference within coastal sage scrub communities<51,54>. Relative to various other Salvias, black sage occupies more mesichabitats <28,29,51>. It is prevalent on coarse-textured soils includingthose derived from unconsolidated sand also, limestone, sandstone, andserpentine <16,28,51>. Within Venturan seaside sage scrub neighborhoods,babsence sage prefers coarser-textured soils and even more southerly aspectsthan purple sage <54>. Whereas annual precipitation on babsence sageconquered sites may average 14.5 inches (36.2 cm), sites overcame bypurple sage receive 13.6 inches (33.9 cm) of yearly precipitation <54>.Although black sage may happen as scattered people <4> or intermixedwith other Salvia types, it frequently creates pure, monoparticular stands thatextfinish over large areas <28,51,54>.SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: Babsence sage is a short-lived, shade-intolerant species that nonethelessproduces self-perpetuating stands within coastal sage scrub communities<28,52,54>. Continual seedling recruitment within intact stands andbasal sprouting by established people enables babsence sage to maintainvigorous, mixed-aged stands throughout extfinished fire-free intervals <53>.Stands unshed for 60 years perform not appear senescent <32,53>. WithinVenturan seaside sage scrub communities, babsence sage attained highestcover in tall-canopied, older stands exhibiting extensive litterbuildups <51>. On these sites black sage is a keyrock species thatcontrols the composition and abundance of herbaceous associates <54>.Evidence says that it influences the linked flora throughbiotic-control factors such as allelopathy <37,38,39>, shading <49>, andthe selective herbivory of connected rodents <53,54>.Babsence sage typically occupies gaps within the chaparral canopy.Although seedlings promptly attack current burns within drier chaparralcommunities, maximum cover occurs during postfire years 3 and also 4 andultimately declines as the stand matures <60>. In chaparral standsover twenty years of age, black sage recruits seedlings in canopy gaps andmight form enclaves <53>.SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Black sage is a herbaceous perennial that becomes woody at the base<26>. Plants die ago rather in the winter and also create brand-new growth inthe spring. Like many kind of connected coastal sage scrub dominants, blacksage is a semideciduous or seasonally dimorphic species <52>. Largeleaves build on main shoots during the winter once moisture is mostplentiful and these are dropped over the summer drought period. Smaller,axillary leaves are developed immediately following the formation ofmain-shoot leaves however are kept until the adhering to winter <52,53>.Black sage frequently blooms from March to June <9,40>. Floweringcoincides with the at an early stage seakid task of solitary, aboriginal bees <9>.Phenological breakthrough of babsence sage on chaparral sites in the SantaMonica Mountain foothills is presented listed below <48>: development initiated September - complying with autumnal rains main period of stem elongation March - late May flower stalks dried June at an early stage season leaves dropped June stem development terminated June

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Salthrough melliferaFIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: Babsence sage sprouts from dormant buds on the root crvery own following lowseverity fires <27,50,55>. It is additionally establishes plentiful seedlingsfrom soil-stored seed <13,20>. As an outcome, babsence sage is able toquickly reoccupy current burns within coastal sage scrub and also chaparralareas. Seasonal dimorphism in leaf duration apparently enhancesbabsence sage survival on drier chaparral sites in the time of beforehand years ofpostfire succession <53>.FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regimen indevelopment for the plant communities in which this species may take place by entering the species name in the FEIS residence page under"Find Fire Regimes".POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY: Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Ground residual colonizer (on-website, initial community) Initial-ofkaupunkiopas.comite colonizer (off-website, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Salvia melliferaIMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Babsence sage is a fire-sensitive species that might endure considerablepostfire mortality <16,21,62>. Perennating buds on the root crown arepresumably exceptionally near the soil surchallenge and are susceptible to firedamages. Initial estimates of the belowground heat tolerance of blacksage suggest that root crowns fail to sprout at fire reactionintensities over 200 kcal/sec/m sq <55>. Babsence sage is most likely toendure the majority of fires in Venturan and also Riversidian coastal sagescrub areas (calculated fire reaction intensities of 170 to 200kcal/sec/m sq) but extensive mortality deserve to be supposed followingbetter intensity chaparral fires <21,53>.PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: Postfire rejuvenation in black sage involves a mix of sproutrebirth and seedling recruitment <20>. Predominant mode ofpostfire refacility varies geographically <20>. Postfire recoverywithin coastal sage scrub areas is primarily via sprouting<55,63>. Westguy and others <55> found that sprouting potential ofcoastal sage scrub species is mostly higher on reduced elevation,maritime sites than at high elevations inland also. They indicate thatecotypic variation might be responsible for this differential sproutingresponse. Following better severity chaparral fires, black sage isgenerally a nonsprouter and also depends on the previously dormant seed financial institution forquick postfire facility <21,24,62>.FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Salby means of melliferaREFERENCES: 1. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and also A.W. Kuchler"s associations for the elalso western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: UNITED STATE Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land also Management. 169 p. <434> 2. Conrad, C. Eugene. 1987. Usual shrubs of chaparral and also associated ecounits of southerly California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-99. Berkeley, CA: UNITED STATE Department of Agrisociety, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and also Range Experiment Station. 86 p. <4209> 3. Dale, Nancy. 1986. Flowering plants: The Santa Monica Mountains, coastal and also chaparral regions of southerly California. Santa Barbara, CA: Capra Press. In cooperation with: The California Native Plant Society. 239 p. <7605> 4. Epling, Carl. 1947. Natural hybridization of Salby means of apiana and S. mellifera. Evolution. 1: 69-78. <12002> 5. Epling, Carl; Lewis, Harlan. 1942. The centers of distribution of the chaparral and coastal sage associations. American Midland also Naturalist. 27: 445-462. <9793> 6. Everett, Percy C. 1957. A summary of the culture of California plants at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden 1927-1950. Claremont, CA: The Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 223 p. <7191> 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover kinds of the USA and also Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. <905> 8. Garrichild, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; . 1977. Vegetation and also ecological features of forest and also variety ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agrisociety, Foremainder Service. 68 p. <998> 9. Grant, Karen A.; Grant, Verne. 1964. Mechanical isolation of Salthrough apiana and also Salby means of mellifera. Evolution. 18: 196-212. <12001>10. Hanes, Ted L. 1976. Vegetation kinds of the San Gabriel Mountains. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant areas of southerly California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 65-76. <4227>11. Hanes, Ted L. 1977. California chaparral. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 417-469. <7216>12. Hanes, Ted L. 1981. The golden state chaparral. In: Di Castri, F.; Goodall, D. W.; Specht, R. L., eds. Mediterranean-form shrublands. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V: 139-174. <13576>13. Hanes, Ted L.; Jones, Harold W. 1967. Postfire chaparral succession in southern California. Ecology. 48(2): 259-264. <9824>14. Hellmers, H.; Horton, J. S.; Juhren, G.; O"Keefe, J. 1955. Root devices of some chaparral plants in southerly The golden state. Ecology. 36(4): 667-678. <6147>15. Holland also, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural areas of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Video Game. 156 p. <12756>16. Horton, Jerome S. 1949. Trees and also shrubs for erosion manage of southerly California mountains. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agrisociety, Foremainder Service, California Foremainder and also Range Experiment Station; The golden state Department of Natural Resources, Division of Foresattempt. 72 p. <10689>17. Horton, Jerome S. 1960. Vegetation kinds of the San Bernardino Mountains. Tech. Rep. PSW-44. Berkeley, CA: UNITED STATE Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and also Range Experiment Station. 29 p. <10687>18. Horton, Jerome S.; Wideal, John T. 1944. The lumber rat as an ecological aspect in southerly California watersheds. Ecology. 25(3): 341-351. <10682>19. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the USA, Canada, and also Greenland also. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The College of North Carolina Press; in conkaupunkiopas.comeration via Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. <6954>20. Keeley, J. E. 1986. Seed germination trends of Salthrough mellifera in fire-vulnerable settings. Oecologia. 71: 1-5. <4891>21. Keeley, Jon E. 1986. Resilience of Mediterranean shrub areas to fires. In: Dell, B.; Hopkins, A. J. N.; Lamont B. B., editors. Resilience in Mediterranean-type ecounits. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk Publishers: 95-112. <9826>22. Keeley, Jon E. 1987. Role of fire in seed germination of woody taxa in California chaparral. Ecology. 68(2): 434-443. <5403>23. Keeley, Jon E.; Keeley, Sterling C. 1981. Post-fire renewal of southerly California chaparral. Amerihave the right to Journal of Botany kind of. 68(4): 524-530. <4660>24. Keeley, Jon E.; Keeley, Sterling C. 1984. Postfire recoexceptionally of California coastal sage scrub. 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Influence of slope facet on postfire remanufacturing of Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae). Madrono. 31(3): 187-189. <4936>34. Minnich, Richard A. 1976. Vegetation of the San Bernardino Mountains. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant neighborhoods of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: The golden state Native Plant Society: 99-124. <4232>35. Minnich, Ricdifficult A. 1982. Grazing, fire, and the management of vegetation on Santa Catalina Island also, California. In: Conrad, C. Eugene; Oechel, Walter C., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on dynamics and also monitoring of Mediterranean-kind ecosystems; 1981 June 22-26; San Diego, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-58. Berkeley, CA: UNITED STATE Department of Agrisociety, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and also Range Experiment Station: 444-449. <6051>36. Mirov, N. T.; Kraebel, C. J. 1937. Collecting and also propagating the seeds of The golden state wild plants. Res. Keep in mind No. 18. Berkeley, CA: UNITED STATE Department of Agriculture, Foremainder Service, The golden state Foremainder and also Range Experiment Station. 27 p. <9787>37. Muller, Cornelius H. 1966. The duty of chemical inhibition (allelopathy) in vegetational complace. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 93(5): 332-351. <13672>38. Muller, Cornelius H.; Hanawalt, Ronald B.; McPherkid, James K. 1968. Allelopathic control of herb development in the fire cycle of The golden state chaparral. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 95(3): 225-231. <4973>39. Muller, Walter H.; Muller, Cornelius H. 1964. Volatile expansion inhibitors created by Salvia varieties. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 91(4): 327-330. <13671>40. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. <6155>41. Patric, James H.; Hanes, Ted L. 1964. 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Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: UNITED STATE Department of Agrisociety, Foremainder Service, Interhill Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. <20090>66. UNITED STATE Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. . NP Flora . Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. <23119>FEIS Home Page