Chapter 4 biology vocabulary

1306089158CellThe smallest unit of living matter.

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1306089159Cell TheoryOne of the major theories of biology, which claims that all organisms are consisted of of cells.1
1306089160Surface-Area-To-Volume-RatioRatio of a cells outside area to its inner volume.2
1306089161Prokaryotic CellsCells that generally lack a membrane bound nucleus.3
1306089162Eukaryotic CellsType of cell that has a membrane bound nucleus and membranous organelles.4
1306089163ArchaensProkaryotic organisms that are members of the doprimary Archea.5
1306089164SpirillaLong, rod shaped bacterium that is twisted right into a ridged spiral.6
1306089165SpirochetesLong, rod shaped bacterium that is twisted right into a functional spiral.7
1306089166Cell EnvelopeIn a prokaryotic cell, the percentage written of the plasma membrane, the cell wall, and also the glycocalyx.8
1306089168Plasma MembraneMembrane bordering the cytoplasm that is composed of a phospholipid bilayer through embedded proteins.9
1306089169MesosomesIn a bacterium, plasma membrane that folds right into the cytoplasm and also boosts surface location.10
1306089170Cell WallCellular framework that surrounds a plant, protistan, fungal, or bacteria cell and also maintains the cell"s form and also rigidity.11
1306089171BacillusA rod shaped bacterium.12
1306089172CoccusA spherical shaped bacterium.13
1306089173GlycocalyxGel-like coating external of the cell wevery one of a bacterium.14
1306089174CapsuleA create of glycocalyx that is composed of a gelatinous layer.15
1306089175CytoplasmRegion of a cell in between the nucleus, or the nucleiod of the area of a bacterium, and the plasma membrane.16
1306089176NucleoidRegion of prokaryotic cells where DNA is situated.17
1306089177PlasmidsExtrachromosmal ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes.18
1309182527VectorIn hereditary engineering, a means to move foreign hereditary material right into a cell.19
1309182528RibosomesSite of protein synthesis in a cell.20
1309182529CyanobacteriaPhotofabricated bacterium that has chlorophyll and also releases oxygen.21
1309182530ThylakoidFlattened sac within a granum of a chloroplast.22
1309182531FlagellaLong, slender extension used for locomotion by some bacteria, protozoans, and sperm.23
1309182532FimbriaeSmall, bristle like fiber on the surconfront of a bacterial cell, which attaches bacteria to a surface.24
1309182533Conjugation PiliIn a bacterium, elongated, hollow appendage used to transfer DNA to various other cells.25
1309182534Endosymbiotic TheoryExplacountry of the evolution of eukaryotic organelles by phagocytosis of prokaryotes.26
1309182535OrganellesSmall, membranous structures in the cytoplasm having actually a details structure and function.27
1309182536VesiclesSmall, membrane-bounded sac that stores substances within a cell.28
1309182537CytoskeletonInternal frame of the cell, consisting of microtubules, actin filaments, and also intermediate filaments.29
1309182538ChromatinNetwork-related of DNA strands and also associated proteins observed within a nucleus of a cell.30
1309182539NucleoplasmSemifluid tool of the nucleus containing chromatin.31
1309182540ChromosomesThe structure that transmits the hereditary material from one generation to the following.

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1309182541GenesUnit of heredity existing as alleles on the chromosome.33
1309182542NucleolusDark-staining, spherical body in the nucleus that produces ribosomal subsystems.34
1309182543Nuclear EnvelopeName for the phospholipid double membrane that sepaprices the contents of the nuceus from the cytoplasm.35
1309182544Nuclear PoresOpening in the nuclear envelope that permits the passage of proteins into the nucleus and ribosomal subdevices out of the nucleus.36
1309182545PolyribosomesString of ribosomes at the same time translating regions of the same mRNA strand also in the time of protein synthesis.37
1309182546Signal PeptideSequence of amino acids that binds with a signal recognition pwrite-up (SRP) endoplasmic reticulum.38
1309182547Endomembrane SystemCellular device that is composed of the nuclear envalope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, and also vesicles.39
1309182548Endoplasmic ReticulumSystem of membranous saccules and also channels in the cytoplasm, often through attached ribosomes.40
1309182549Rough ERMembranous system studded through ribosomes that synthedimension proteins.41
1309182550Smooth ERMembranous system that lacks ribosomes, and synthesizes lipid molecules.42
1309182551Golgi ApparatusOrganelle consisting of sacs and vesicles that processes, packages, and also distributes molecules around or from the cell.43
1309182552SecretionRelease of a substance by exocytosis from a cell.44
1309182553LysosomesMembrane bound vesicle that contains hydrolytic enzymes for digesting macromolecules and bacteria.45
1309182554PeroxisomesEnzyme filled vesicle in which fatty acids and also amino acids are metabolized to hydrogen peroxide that is damaged down to harmless assets.46
1309182555VacuolesMembrane bound sac, bigger than a vesicle.47
1309182556Central VacuoleIn a plant cell, a large, liquid filled sac that stores metabolites.48
1309182557ChloroplastsMembrane bound organelle in algae and plants through chlorophyll-containing membranous thylakoids.49
1309182558MitochondriaMembrane bounded organelle in which ATP molecules are created throughout the process of cellular respiration.50
1309182559StromaRegion within a chloroplast that surrounds the grana.51
1309182560ThylakoidsFlattened sac within a granum of a chloroplast.52
1309182561GranumStack of chlorophyll containing thylakoids in a chloroplast.53
1309182562PlastidsOrganelles of plants and also algae that are bounded by a twin membrane and also contain inner membrane and/or vesicles.54
1309182563ChromoplastsPlastid in land plants responsible for oselection, yellow, and red color of plants, consisting of the autumn colors in leaves.55
1309182564LeucoplastsPlastid, mostly colorless, that synthesizes and also stores starcs and also oils.56
1309182565CristaeQuick, fingerlike projections developed by the folding of the inner membrane of mitochondria.57
1309182566MatrixUnstructured semi-fluid substance that fills the area between cells in connective tworries or inside organelles.58
1322556311Actin FilamentsComponent of the cytoskeleton, moves cells and its oranelles.59
1322556312Motor MoleculesProtein that moves alengthy either actin filaments or microtubules, and translocates organelles.60
1322556313Intermediate FilamentsRopechoose assemblies of fibrous polypeptides in the cytoskeleton that administer support and toughness to cells.61
1322556314MicrotubuleSmall, cylindrical organelle written of tubulin protein roughly an empty central core.62
1322556315CentrosomeCentral microtubule arranging center of cells.63
1322556316CentriolesCell framework, existing in pairs, that occurs in the centrosome and also may assist organize a mitotic spindle for chromosome movement throughout pet cell department.64
1322556317Basal BodyA cytoplasmic framework that is situated at the base of, and also might organize, cilia or flagella.65