Nature Ecology And Evolution

44. Reviewing advancement and also ecology

1. Evolutionary Evidence
Palaeontology The intermediate fossils reflect the relationships in between phyla, classes in the evolutionary procedure.

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Comparative Anatomy The homologous, degenerate organs reflect the prevalent structural pattern of big groups, their prevalent origin.
Comparative embryology The similarity in embryonic breakthrough of species belonging to different taxa suggests their ancestral partnership.
Individual development repeats the diminished advancement of the species.
Geobiology The similarity in flora and also fauna of geographical locations is related to geological history.
Cytology and Molecular Biology All living points are made up of cells.
All species have actually nucleic acids composed of four kinds of nucleotides, the many traditional hereditary code, proteins composed of more than 20 amino acids.

2. Compare the theories of evolution
Evolutionary factors - Change of the exterior atmosphere.
- Activity habits (in animals).
Variation, heredity, herbal selection. The procedures of mutation, gene transport, non-random mating, herbal selection, hereditary variation.
Formation of adaptive traits Individuals of the same species react in the very same way to a steady readjust in the environment, without rejection. Eliminate adverse mutations, accumulate advantageous mutations under the affect of organic selection.
Elimicountry is the primary facet.
Under the influence of three major factors:
- Mutation process
- The mating process
- The procedure of organic selection
Formation of new species loài Under the affect of the external environment, species readjust progressively, with many type of intermediate forms. New species are developed gradually with many kind of intermediate forms under the affect of herbal selection by the means of segregation of traits from a prevalent root. Formation of new species is the procedure of modifying the genoform composition of the populace in the direction of adaptation, producing brand-new genokinds, reproductively isolated from the original population.
Evolution direction Raise the level of organization from simple to facility. - More and more diverse.
- Increasingly organized.
- Adapting even more and also more rationally.
As Darwin's concept and particularly the evolutionary trends of groups of species.

3. The role of evolutionary factors in little evolution
Mutation Create a major reresource (mutant) for evolution (mostly) and make little alters in allele frequencies.
Non-random mating Change the genotype composition of the populace in the direction of decreasing the rate of heterozygotes and progressively increasing the homozygous.
Natural selection Directs advancement, determines the direction and also rhythm of transforms in the relative frequencies of alleles in a populace.
Gene migration Changes the family member frequencies of alleles, affecting the gene pool of a populace.
Random elements Sudden changes in the loved one frequencies of alleles, considerably affecting the gene pool of a population.

4. Basic qualities in the breakthrough of life and humale beings
Chemical evolution The procedure of complicating carbon compounds:
Simple molecules → Complex molecules → Macromolecules → Self-replicating macromolecules (DNA).
Pre-organic evolution Macromolecule device → Prokaryotic cells → Prokaryotic cells → Eukaryotic protozoa.
Biological evolution Prokaryotic cells → prokaryotic cells, eukaryotes.

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Old man Skull 450-750cm 3 , standing upappropriate, walking on 2 hind legs.
Know just how to use tools (twigs, stones, animal bones) to defend themselves.
Ancient people - Homo habilis (human ingenuity): The skull 600-800cm 3 , developed colonies, walked upbest, said manufacture and also usage of rock devices.
- Homo erectus (upideal man): The skull 900-1000cm 3 , no protruding chin, offered rock devices, bone, said fire.
- Homo neanderthalensis: 1400cm 3 skull , protruding chin, sharp knife, axes made of silsymbol stone, quite developed voice, fluent in fire. Live in groups. The initially step is to have actually a social life.
Modern people Homo sapiens: 1700cm 3 skull , plainly convex chin, making use of an ax blade with a hole in the manage, a spear with hooks, a sewing needle Live in a tribe, have actually a facility culture, have creative and religious seeds.

5. The department of teams of organisms based upon eco-friendly limits
Light - Group of plants that prefer light, team of plants that favor shade.
- Long-day plants, short-day plants.
- Group of animals that like light.
- Group of animals that like dark.
Temperature - Thermogenic plants. - Thermogenic animals.
- Animals are continuous (isotropic) warm.
Humidity - Humid-loving plants, medium-humidity plants.
- Drought tolerant plants.
- Mosquito-loving animals.
- Dry-loving pets.

6. Same-species and also different-species relationships
Support Gather, herd or develop a society. symbiosis, symbiosis, symbiosis.
Competition - confrontation Competition, cannibalism. Antibiotic, competitive, prey – predator, hold – parawebsite.

7. Characteristics of the levels of living organization
Population Including people of the same species, living in a certain location, at a details time, openly mating via each other to develop brand-new generations. There are characteristics of thickness, sex proportion, age composition...; people in a supportive or competitive ecological partnership. The variety of individuals deserve to fluctuate with or without a cycle, normally readjusted to the equilibrium level.
Communities Including populations of different species, living in a characterized space, having actually cshed relationships via each other to endure and build stably over time. Tright here are basic properties of the number and complace of species; Tright here is always a manage that creates a organic balance in the variety of individuals. The succession of biomes over time is eco-friendly succession.
Ecosystem Including the biome and its living area (habitat), in which organisms always interact through each various other and also through the environment, producing biogeochemical cycles and energy transformation. There are many kind of relationships, but the vital one is nutritionally via food chains and also webs. Energy flows in ecosystems are transported with the trophic levels of food chains: Producers → Consumers → decomposers.
Biosphere The biggest and just ecosystem on the planet. Consisting of organic zones (huge ecosystems) typical for certain geographical and climatic regions, belonging to 2 teams on land and in water.

8. Food Chain Diagram

9. Diagram of the partnership in between the levels of living company and the environment