Nature of matter powerpoint

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 Notes 2-1 DESCRIBING MATTER."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nature of Matter

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2  Notes 2-1 DESCRIBING MATTER

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3 Matter  Anypoint that has mass and takes up area  Substance- single type of matter that has a certain make-up and also certain properties -Example: Salt or sugar -Non-Example: Muffin batter (the ingredients have the right to vary)

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4 Physical Properties of Matter  Can be oboffered without changing into another substance  Examples: Freezing allude, melting allude, thickness, texture, shade, flexibility, solubility in water

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5 Chemical Properties of Matter  Ability to change right into a different substance  Examples: flammability, rusting, tarnishing, increasing of bread in baking procedure

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6 Elements  Pure substances that cannot be damaged down into any kind of other substance  Simplest substances  Is determined by its particular physical and chemical properties  Examples: Carbon, Oxygen, Gold, Silver, Aluminum

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7 Atoms  Basic particle that renders up all aspects  Having various atoms offers facets their distinctive properties  Atoms have a nucleus consisted of of positively charged prolots and neutrally charged neutrons, and they are surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons

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8 Modeling an Atom  Pencil “lead” is made of largely graphite, a form of carbon. Two methods to version atoms supplied in this presentation are presented here for carbon.

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9 Chemical Bonds  Atoms integrate by chemical bonds (a pressure of attraction between the electrons of 2 or even more atoms)  Often form molecules- teams of 2 or even more atoms held together by chemical bonds  Examples: H 2 O, O 2, CO 2

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10 Modeling Molecules How many atoms are in each of these molecules?

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11 Compounds  Pure substance made up of 2 or even more elements chemically combined in a collection ratio  Represented by a chemical formula which mirrors the aspects in the compound and the proportion of atoms  When elements integrate to create compounds, they have actually distinctive properties from those of the ununified aspects -Example: Hydrogen alone is a really combustible gas, Oxygen alone is a major supporter of combustibility, yet as soon as combined in the set 2:1 proportion H 2 O, they put out fires!

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12 Ratios  A proportion compares two numbers. It tells you just how much you have actually of one item compared to just how much you have actually of an additional. For example, a cookie recipe calls for 2 cups of flour to eexceptionally 1 cup of sugar. You deserve to compose the proportion of flour to sugar as 2 to 1, or 2:1.  The chemical formula for rust, a compound made from the elements iron (Fe) and oxygen (O), might be composed as Fe 2 O 3. In this compound, the ratio of iron atoms to oxygen atoms is 2:3. This compound is different from FeO, a compound in which the ratio of iron atoms to oxygen atoms is 1:1.

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13 Ratios  Practice Problem  What is the proportion of nitrogen atoms (N) to oxygen atoms (O) in a compound with the formula N 2 O 5 ? Is it the very same as the compound NO 2 ? Exordinary.  N 2 O 5 has two nitrogen atoms for eextremely five oxygen atoms.

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Both N 2 O 5 and also NO 2 are made up of just nitrogen atoms and also oxygen atoms. However, the 2 compounds are various because NO 2 includes one nitrogen atom for every two oxygen atoms.
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14 Mixtures  Made up of 2 or more substances that are not chemically linked  Differ from compounds bereason they perform not need to have actually a set proportion, and each substance in mixture keeps its individual properties  Examples: Air, Soil, Salt water

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15 Heterogeneous Mixtures  Hetero = different  Can view different parts of mixture  Examples: Soil, Salad Who can think of other examples?

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16 Homogeneous Mixtures  Homo = exact same  Can’t see various components of mixture, evenly mixed  Examples: Sugar/water solution, Air Who have the right to think of other examples?

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17 Separating Mixtures  Compounds are tough to separate  Mixtures are easy to sepaprice given that each component keeps its own properties  Look at number 10 on web page 66, it mirrors different ways to separate a mixture including using a magnet, filtering, distilling, and evaporating

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18 LET’S REVIEW!!  What are some examples of chemical properties of matter?  Rusting, flammcapacity, bread baking  What are some examples of physical properties of matter?  Density, melting, freezing, shade, flexibility, hardness

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19 LET’S REVIEW!!  What 2 things does a chemical formula show?  The aspects present and the ratio of atoms  Give an example of an aspect.  Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Gold, Silver, and so on.

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20  Notes 2-2 Changes in Matter

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21 Physical Changes  Alters form or appearance of issue however does NOT adjust matter into a various substance  Examples: -Changes of state (solid to liquid, or liquid to gas, etc.) -Changes in shape or develop (dissolving, chopping, cutting, bending, breaking, etc)

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22 Chemical Changes A adjust in matter that produces one or even more brand-new substances Chemical adjust = chemical reaction New substances have actually properties different from original substances Examples: -burning of natural gas on gas range (combustion) -rusting (oxidation)

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23 Chemical Change

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24 Law of Conservation of Matter  Matter is neither produced nor ruined in any type of physical or chemical readjust  No mass is lost, because throughout a chemical readjust, atoms are not shed or gained, simply rearranged.

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25 Conserving Matter The concept of atoms defines the legislation of conservation of issue. For eextremely molecule of methane that burns, 2 molecules of oxygen are used. The atoms are rearranged in the reactivity, but they carry out not disappear.

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26  Notes 2-3 Energy and Matter

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27 ENERGY  Who remembers the meaning of Energy?  The Ability to carry out WORK!

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28 ENERGY  All chemical and physical alters incorporate a readjust in power

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29 Law of Conservation of Energy  Energy is neither created nor destroyed  It is just transformed (readjusted from one form to another)

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30 Forms of Energy  Forms of energy that encompass transforms in issue are: Thermal Energy, Chemical Energy, Electromagnetic Energy, and also Electric Energy

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31 Thermal Energy  Temperature = average power of random movement of pshort articles of matter  Thermal Energy = complete energy in all particles in an item  Thermal energy is regarded temperature because the power always flows from warm issue to cool issue  Endothermic Change = energy is soaked up Ex: Melting  Exothermic Change = power is released Ex: Combustion

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32 Chemical Energy  Stored in Chemical Bonds in between atoms  Bonds are broken and also new bonds created  Ex: in foodstuffs, gas for cars, cells  Typically involve revolutions in between chemical power and thermal power, prefer when burning a complement

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33 Electromagnetic Energy  Travels with space as waves  Ex: Visible light, radiowaves, microwaves, x-rays, UV rays, infrared rays  Chemical transforms deserve to offer off light (electromagnetic energy)  Microwaves thaw frozen food (physical change)

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34 Electrical Energy  Energy of electrically charged particles relocating from one location to an additional  Ex: electrons move from one atom to an additional in many kind of chemical transforms.  Ex: using electrolysis to separate water molecules right into oxygen gas and hydrogen gas

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35 Potential Vs Kinetic POTENTIAL ENERGY:  Energy waiting to be offered  Ex: Food you eat KINETIC ENERGY:  Energy of Motion (Energy being used)  Ex: You taking notes!  Ex: You taking notes!

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36 Transforming Energy Example 1:  Burning -Chemical readjust that transdevelops chemical energy and also releases it as thermal power (heat) and electromagnetic power (light)

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37 Transcreating Energy Example 2:  Photosynthesis -Plants transdevelop electromagnetic energy from the sun right into chemical power (sugar for plants)

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38 Transdeveloping Energy Example 3:  You Try!  What energy transformations take place when you ride a bike?  Tright here is potential power in the food you eat.  Your cells transcreate food right into chemical energy your body deserve to usage.  Chemical energy is transdeveloped to kinetic energy of moving muscles and also thermal energy provided off as heat.

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