Oxidative Phosphorylation Diagram Mastering Biology

Carbon atoms in acetyl CoA formation and the citric acid cycle Throughout acetyl CoA development and the citric acid cycle, all of the carbon atoms that enter cellular respiration in the glucose molecule are released in the create of CO2. Use this diagram to track the carbon-containing compounds that play a role in these two stperiods.

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Net redox reaction in acetyl CoA development and also the citric acid cycle.In the sequential reactions of acetyl CoA formation and the citric acid cycle, pyruvate (the output from glycolysis) is completely oxidized, and also the electrons created from this oxidation are passed on to two forms of electron acceptors.
Why is the citric acid cycle a cyclic pathmeans fairly than a direct pathway? a. More ATP is produced per CO2 released in cyclic processes than in linear processes.b. It is much easier to rerelocate electrons and produce CO2 from compounds through three or even more carbon atoms than from a two-carbon compound such as acetyl CoA.c. Redox reactions that concurrently develop CO2 and NADH occur just in cyclic processes.d. Cyclic procedures, such as the citric acid cycle, require a different system of ATP synthesis than linear processes, such as glycolysis.
b. It is easier to remove electrons and develop CO2 from compounds via 3 or more carbon atoms than from a two-carbon compound such as acetyl CoA.Although it is feasible to oxidize the two-carbon acetyl team of acetyl CoA to two molecules of CO2, it is much even more hard than adding the acetyl team to a four-carbon acid to form a six-carbon acid (citrate). Citrate deserve to then be oxidized sequentially to release two molecules of CO2.
In mitochondrial electron carry, what is the direct duty of O2?In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?a. to oxidize NADH and also FADH2 from glycolysis, acetyl CoA formation, and also the citric acid cycleb. to attribute as the last electron acceptor in the electron transfer chainc. to provide the driving force for the production of a proton gradientd. to administer the driving pressure for the synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi
b. to feature as the final electron acceptor in the electron carry chainThe only area that O2 participates in cellular respiration is at the finish of the electron carry chain, as the last electron acceptor. Oxygen"s high affinity for electrons ensures its success in this role. Its contributions to driving electron transport, creating a proton gradient, and also manufacturing ATP are all instraight effects of its duty as the terminal electron acceptor.
How would anaerobic problems (when no O2 is present) impact the rate of electron carry and also ATP production in the time of oxidative phosphorylation? (Keep in mind that you have to not think about the impact on ATP synthesis in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.)a. Electron transport would certainly be uninfluenced but ATP synthesis would soptimal.b. Electron transport would certainly sheight however ATP synthesis would be unimpacted.c. Both electron transfer and ATP synthesis would certainly stop.d. Neither electron transfer nor ATP synthesis would certainly be affected.
c. Both electron transport and also ATP synthesis would certainly soptimal.Oxygen plays a critical role in cellular respiration bereason it is the last electron acceptor for the entire process. Without O2, mitochondria are unable to oxidize the NADH and FADH2 produced in the first 3 actions of cellular respiration, and also therefore cannot make any type of ATP by means of oxidative phosphorylation. In enhancement, without O2 the mitochondria cannot oxidize the NADH and also FADH2 earlier to NAD+ and FAD, which are essential as inputs to the initially three stperiods of cellular respiration.
Which statement finest describes why more ATP is made per molecule of NADH than per molecule of FADH2?Which statement ideal defines why even more ATP is made per molecule of NADH than per molecule of FADH2?a. There is even more NADH than FADH2 made for every glucose that enters cellular respiration.b. FADH2 is made just in the citric acid cycle while NADH is made in glycolysis, acetyl CoA formation, and the citric acid cycle.c. The H+ gradient made from electron transfer utilizing NADH is situated in a various component of the mitochondrion than the H+ gradient made utilizing FADH2.d. Fewer proloads are pumped throughout the inner mitochondrial membrane once FADH2 is the electron donor than once NADH is the electron donor.e. It takes more power to make ATP from ADP and also Pi making use of FADH2 than using NADH.
d. Fewer protons are pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane when FADH2 is the electron donor than when NADH is the electron donor.Electrons obtained from the oxidation of FADH2 enter the electron transfer chain at Complex II, farther down the chain than electrons from NADH (which enter at Complex I). This results in fewer H+ ions being pumped across the membrane for FADH2 compared to NADH, as this diagram mirrors. Hence, even more ATP can be developed per NADH than FADH2.
The impact of gramicidin on oxidative phosphorylation:Sort the labels into the correct bin according to the impact that gramicidin would certainly have on each process.

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stays the same: proton pumping rate, electron move price, rate of oxygen uptakedecreases (or goes to zero): rate of ATP synthesis, dimension of the proton gradientGramicidin causes membranes to become incredibly leaky to protons, so that a proton gradient cannot be kept and also ATP synthesis stops. However, the leakiness of the membrane has no impact on the capacity of electron move to pump protons. Thus, the rates of proton pumping, electron deliver, and also oxygen uptake remajor unadjusted.
The coupled stages of cellular respiration:The 4 stperiods of cellular respiration perform not function independently. Instead, they are coupled together because one or even more outputs from one phase functions as an input to an additional stage. The coupling works in both directions, as suggested by the arrows in the diagram listed below. In this activity, you will certainly determine the compounds that couple the stperiods of cellular respiration. Drag the labels on the left onto the diagram to identify the compounds that couple each phase. Labels may be offered when, more than once, or not at all.
a. pyruvateb. NADHc. NAD+d. NADHe. NAD+The primary coupling among the stages of cellular respiration is accomplished by NAD+ and NADH. In the first 3 steras, NAD+ accepts electrons from the oxidation of glucose, pyruvate, and also acetyl CoA. The NADH created in these redox reactions then gets oxidized in the time of oxidative phosphorylation, regenerating the NAD+ necessary for the previously stages.
Anaerobic conditions and also acetyl CoA formation:Under anaerobic problems (a lack of oxygen), the convariation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA stops.Which of these statements is the correct explanation for this observation?a. Oxygen is an input to acetyl CoA development.b. In the lack of oxygen, electron transfer stops. NADH is no longer converted to NAD+, which is necessary for the first 3 stperiods of cellular respiration.c. ATP is necessary to convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA. Without oxygen, no ATP deserve to be made in oxidative phosphorylation.d. Oxygen is required to convert glucose to pyruvate in glycolysis. Without oxygen, no pyruvate can be made.
b. In the absence of oxygen, electron deliver stops. NADH is no longer converted to NAD+, which is essential for the first 3 steras of cellular respiration.NAD+ couples oxidative phosphorylation to acetyl CoA formation. The NAD+ necessary to oxidize pyruvate to acetyl CoA is created during electron transfer. Without O2, electron transfer stops, and also the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA additionally stops bereason of the lack of NAD+.
Suppose that a cell"s demand for ATP unexpectedly exceeds its supply of ATP from cellular respiration.Which statement effectively defines exactly how this enhanced demand would result in an boosted price of ATP production?a. ATP levels would autumn at first, increasing the inhibition of PFK and enhancing the rate of ATP production.b. ATP levels would certainly autumn at first, decreasing the inhibition of PFK and also enhancing the rate of ATP production.c. ATP levels would climb at initially, raising the inhibition of PFK and also enhancing the rate of ATP production.d. ATP levels would climb at first, decreasing the inhibition of PFK and also increasing the rate of ATP manufacturing.
b. ATP levels would autumn at first, decreasing the inhibition of PFK and also raising the price of ATP production.An increased demand also for ATP by a cell will certainly cause an initial decrease in the level of cellular ATP. Lower ATP decreases the inhibition of the PFK enzyme, therefore raising the price of glycolysis, cellular respiration, and also ATP manufacturing. It is the initial decrease in ATP levels that leads to an increase in ATP production.
During strenuous exercise, anaerobic conditions deserve to result if the cardiovascular mechanism cannot supply oxygen fast enough to accomplish the needs of muscle cells. Assume that a muscle cell"s demand also for ATP under anaerobic conditions remains the same as it was under aerobic conditions.What would occur to the cell"s price of glucose utilization?a. Glucose utilization would certainly rise a lot.b. Glucose utilization would increase a tiny.c. Glucose utilization would certainly remajor the exact same.d. Glucose utilization would decrease a tiny.e. Glucose utilization would certainly decrease a lot.
a. Glucose utilization would boost a lot.ATP made during fermentation originates from glycolysis, which produces a net of just 2 ATP per glucose molecule. In contrast, aerobic cellular respiration produces about 36 ATP per glucose molecule. To fulfill the very same ATP demand under anaerobic conditions as under aerobic problems, a cell"s rate of glycolysis and also glucose utilization need to increase nearly 20-fold.
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