PRENTICE HALL BIOLOGY CHAPTER 3

2 3-1 What is Ecology? Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and also between organisms and also their atmosphere, or surroundings.

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3 Levels of OrganizationParts of Planet in which life exists Collection of all the living organisms and also the nonliving, physical environment in a location

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4 3-2 Energy Flow

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5 Wright here does the power for life processes come from?The Sun! Sunlight is the primary power source for life on Earth.

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6 Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and also use that energy to develop food. The organisms that make their own food are called autotrophs (additionally well-known as producers).

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7 Photosynthesis is responsible for including oxygen to (and rerelocating carbon dioxide from) Earth"s atmosphere.

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8 Examples of Photofabricated AutotrophsPlants are the main autotrophs on land. Algae are the main autotrophs in freshwater ecodevices and in the top layers of the ocean. Photoman-made bacteria are necessary in particular wet ecounits, such as tidal flats and also salt marshes.

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9 Life Without Light Some autotrophs deserve to develop food in the absence of light. When organisms usage chemical energy to develop carbohydprices, the process is called chemosynthesis. Example: Bacteria that live in volcanic vents or tidal marshes

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10 Consumers Organisms that depend on various other organisms for their power and also food supply are dubbed heterotrophs (additionally well-known as consumers bereason they consume/eat their food).

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11 Tbelow are many different forms of heterotrophs.Herbivores eat plants. (ex. cows, caterpillars, deer) Carnivores eat pets. (ex. snakes, dogs, owls) Omnivores eat both plants and pets. (ex. human beings, bears, crows) Detritivores or Scavengers feed on plant and animal continues to be and also other dead issue. (ex. ants, vultures, crabs, earthworms) Decomposers break down organic issue.

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(ex. bacteria and also fungi)
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12 Feeding RelationshipsEnergy flows with an ecomechanism in one direction, from the sun (or inorganic compounds) to autotrophs (producers) and then to miscellaneous heterotrophs (consumers).

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13 Food Chains A food chain is a collection of actions in which organisms move energy by eating and being consumed. It shows the power move flowing in one direction only.

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14 Food Webs Ecologists define a feeding partnership in an ecodevice that forms a network-related of facility interactions as a food internet. A food internet web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together.

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15 This food internet reflects some of the feeding relationships in a salt-marsh community.

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16 The more facility the food web the even more stable the ecodevice. Why?The a lot of complex food webs are in the Tropical Rainwoodland and the Coral Reefs wright here there is high biodiversity.

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17 Trophic Levels Each step in a food chain or food web is referred to as a trophic level. Producers comprise the initially trophic level. Consumers consist of the second, third, or greater trophic levels. Each consumer counts on the trophic level listed below it for power. Tertiary Consumers Secondary Consumers Key Consumers Producers

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18 How reliable is the deliver of energy among organisms in an ecosystem?Ecological pyramid: a diagram that reflects the family member quantities of energy or issue contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food internet.

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19 Ecologists recognize three various forms of environmental pyramids:energy pyramids biomass pyramids pyramids of numbers

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20 Energy Pyramids Shows the family member amount of energy accessible at each trophic level. Only 10% of the energy that is stored in one trophic level is passed on to the next level.

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21 The even more levels that exist between a producer and a top-level customer in an ecodevice, the much less energy that continues to be from the original amount. Maximum variety of trophic levels is 5!!!! 90% of the energy at each level is shed as warm to the atmosphere and provided up in life procedures

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22 Biomass Pyramids Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. Normally, the greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid.

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23 Pyramid of Numbers Shows the loved one variety of individual organisms at each trophic level.

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