Prentice hall biology notes

4041629468What does the principle of supremacy state?The principle of supremacy says that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive0
4041629469What is segregation?Segregation is the separation of paired alleles.

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4041629470What happens to alleles during segregation?The alleles are separated in the time of the formation of gametes with the result that each gamete carries only a single allele from the original pair.2
4041629471How does Mendel cross-pollinated pea plantsHe reduced amethod the male components of one flower, then dusted it through pollen from one more freduced.3
4041629472Why did just about 1/4 of Mendel"s F1 plants exhilittle bit the recessive trait?Only 1/4 of the possible gamete combination did not have a leading allele4
4041629473List the four standard values of genes that Mendel found in his experiments.1. Inheritance of biological characteristics is figured out by genes2. When two or more alleles of the gene for a single traits, some might be leading and some might be recessive3. In most sexually redeveloping organisms, each adult has two copies of each gene, one from each parent4. The alleles for different genes (actually the chromosomes) normally segregate independently5
4041629474GeneticsThe scientific study of heredity6
4041629475GameteSex cells7
4041629476HybridThe off-spring of crosses in between parents through different traits.8
4041629477AlleleDifferent develop of a gene9
4041629478GeneChemical aspect that identify traits.10
4041629479FertilizationThe procedure as soon as male and also female reproductive cells join11
4041629480True-breedingIf single genes was permitted to self- pollinate, they would develop offspring identical to themselves. (i.e. TT+TT=TT and also tt+tt=tt)12
4041629481TraitA specific characteristic, such as a shade or height that varies from on individual to another13
4041629482Principles of probabilityPredict the outcomes of genetic crosses14
4041629483How are Punnett squares used?A diagram supplied to predict and also compare the genetic variations that will outcome from a hereditary cross15
4041629484ProbabilityThe likelihood that a certain event will certainly occur16
4041629485HomozygousOrganisms that have 2 similar alleles for a certain trait (ex: TT or tt)17
4041629486HeterozygousOrganisms that have actually two various alleles for the very same trait.18
4041629487PhenotypeVisible expression or physical features of the alleles19
4041629488GenotypeActual alleles existing for a trait, or genetic makeup.20
4041629489What inheritance fads exists aside from basic dominance?Some alleles are neither dominant nor recessive and also many type of traits are regulated by multiple alleles or multiple genes21
4041629490Incomplete dominanceSituation in which one allele is not completelydominant over an additional (pink flowers from red and also white parents)22
4041629491Co-dominanceSituation where both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenokind of the organism (ex: bird through 2 various color feathers)23
4041629492Why are fruit flies a suitable organism for genetic research?They are tiny, easy to keep in the lab and also have the right to create a many type of off-spring in a short duration of time24
4041629493Why is it that chromosomes , not individual genes that astype individually?The genes are linked to the chromosomes which are separated throughout gamete development.25
4041629494Multiple allelesGenes with even more than one alleles26
4041629495Polygenic traitsTraits regulated by two or more genes.27
4041629496What happens during the process of meiosis?Meiosis is around reduction. When the number of chromosomes per cell is reduced in fifty percent through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.28
4041629497What happens in the time of the Interphase phase of MeiosisCells undergo a round of DNA replication - developing duplicate chromosomes (before Meiosis I starts)29
4041629498What happens during Phophase stage of MeiosisEach chromosome pairs via its equivalent homologous chromosomes to form a tetrad30
4041629499What happens in the time of Metaphase phase of MeiosisThe chromosomes line up throughout the center of the cell ( similar to the method they do in the metaphase way of Mitosis)31
4041629500What happens in the time of Anaphase phase of MeiosisThe chromosomes separate and also move toward opposite ends of the cell.

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4041629501What happens throughout Telophase phase of MeiosisA nuclear membrane creates roughly each cluster of chromosomes.33
4041629502Describe the major results of meiosis?Four haploid cells end up being genetically different from each various other and also from the original cell34
4041629503How does the outcomes of meiosis differ from mitosis?Meiosis produces four genetically different haploid cellsMitosis produces two genetically the same diploid cells35
4041629504How many type of chromosomes are in a sperm cell? Egg cell? White blood cell? Why?Sperm and also Egg cells have 23 chromosomes bereason they are gametes, which are haploid cells. A white blood cell has actually 46 because it is a diploid cell.36
4041629505DiploidTwo collection of chromosomes37
4041629506HaploidOne collection of chromosomes38
4041629507TetradA structure in the prophase of meiosis that consists of 2 chromatids.They develops as soon as each chromosome pairs via its corresponding (or one simply choose it) homologous chromosome.39
4041629508Crossing-overWhen Homologous chromosomes pair up and also form tetrads in meiosis I, then cross over and also exchange through each various other, making new alleles.40
4041629509Exordinary why chromosomes and also not independent genes, assort separately.Genes are a part of the chromosome.41
4041629510What does a Gene Map show?Shows the relative locations of genes on a chromosome.42
4041629511How does crossing over make gene mapping possible?The farther acomponent 2 genes are, the even more likely they are to be separated during a crossover in meiosis. The frequency of crossing over is equal to the distance between two genes.43
4041629512Crossing OverWhen Homologous chromosomes pair up and develop tetrads in meiosis I, then cross over and also exadjust through each various other, making new alleles.44
4041629513An crucial function of meiosis is to _____Maintain the diploid chromosome variety of a species45
4041629514Offspring developed by crossing parental fees that have actually different qualities are dubbed ____________Hybrids46
4041629515Who else has your Universal DNA sequence?No one, unmuch less you have an identical twin47
4041629516What is a heredity molecule that is found in all living things. It"s the pshort article Mendel was looking for?DNA48
4041629517How many chromosomes do each humale (1 male/1 female) have?23 each (total 4649
4041629518What is the global blood type?AB positive50
4041629519What is the global donor blood type?O negative51
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4041629521Which Mendel law says that organisms inherit two duplicates of each gene and also donate one copy to each of their offspring?Law of segregation53
4041629522Due to the process of Segregation, alleles sepaprice in the time of the manufacturing of _____Sex cells54
4041629523How can a heterozygous guinea pig (Rr) have nine offspring through a homozygous guinea pig (rr) and also all their coats are smooth? ("R" implies rough coat and also "r" is smooth coat)Probability55
4041629524How would you recognize the genotype of a white ram, if you wanted to view if he was homozygous?Breed him with babsence lamb. If the offspring are ALL white he is homozygous if ANY are babsence he is heterozygous.56
4041629525Meiosis only happens duringSexual reproduction57
4041629526If cells via the genotype SsYyRr undergo meiosis, How many kind of forms of gametes will be created ? Assume that the S, Y and also R genes are on different chromosomes8 various genokinds are feasible if the allele pairs assort separately of each other (SYR, SYr, SyR, 5yr, sYR, sYr, syR, syr)58
4041629527The Austrian monk whose speculative work-related on pea plants lassist the structure for the science of genes is who:Gregor Mendel59
4041629528In guinea pigs where the babsence color is dominant, what is the probability of creating a white guinea pig if you have two hybrid babsence guinea pigs ?1/460
4041629529Are an organisms characteristics are identified by _______.Its genes and the atmosphere the organism stays in61