WHAT IS GDP IN BIOLOGY

Definition

noun plural: guanosine diphosphates (biochemistry) A nucleotide made up of guanine, ribose, and two phosphate units; having a chemical formula: C10H15N5O11P2


Details

Rundown

A nucleotide is an organic compound made up of 3 subunits: a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar, and also a phosphate team. The sugar component might either be ribose or deoxyribose. A nucleotide is, for this reason, a nucleoside with a phosphate team. Depfinishing on the variety of phosphate groups attached to the sugar moiety, a nucleotide may be called nucleoside monophosphate (if with only one phosphate group), nucleoside diphosphate (through two phosphate groups), or nucleoside triphosphate (once through 3 phosphate groups). Depfinishing on the pentose sugar component, a nucleoside may be a ribonucleoside or a deoxyribonucleoside. A ribonucleoside is a nucleoside via a ribose sugar component. Based on the nucleobase component, the ribonucleoside may be adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, uridine, or 5-methyluridine. A deoxyribonucleoside is a nucleoside through a deoxyribose sugar. Similarly, depending upon the nucleobase component, a deoxyribonucleoside may be deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine, thymidine, or deoxyuridine. Also, depending upon the nucleobase component, the nucleosides may be grouped right into either the “double-ringed” purine or the “single-ringed” pyrimidine.

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Properties

Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) is a nucleoside phosphate made up of a ribonucleoside and two phosphate teams. It means it has a ribose as its sugar and two phosphate teams attached. Its nucleoside contains a purine base, i.e. a guanine attached to the ribose sugar. It has 2 phosphate groups attached to the nucleoside. The nucleoside is a pentose sugar backbone via a purine base guanine attached to it (i.e. at the 1′ carbon). The phosphate groups are bonded in series to the 5′ carbon of the pentose sugar. Inside the cells, it can be found in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, nucleus, and also Golgi apparatus. It may also happen extracellularly.

Common biological reactions


Usual organic reactions

GDP have the right to be derived from guanosine triphosphates (GTPs). It can be interconverted to GTP. In certain, GTP is dephosphorylated by GTPases (i.e. a household of hydrolase enzymes that bind to and also hydrolyze GTPs) to form GDP. GDP, in turn, may be phosphorylated to become GTP with the help of pyruvate kinase and also phosphoenolpyruvate. GDP might be degraded to develop guanosine monophosphate (GMP, an adenine nucleotide through just one phosphate). Similar to various other nucleotides, GMP may additionally be derived from the diet. When the diet consists of nucleotides, the body degrades them by the activity of nucleotidases to develop nucleosides and also phosphates. Nucleosides are degraded right into their subcomponents (i.e. nucleobases and also sugar) by the action of nucleosidases in the luguys of the digestive tract.

Biological functions

GDP is a metabolite affiliated in the adhering to biological processes:1

PKC activation via G protein coupled receptor Aspartate metabolism Citric Acid Cycle Congenital lactic acidosis Gluconeogenesis Glutaminolysis Glycogenosis, forms IB and IC Insulin signaling Intracellular signaling Purine metabolism Pyruvate metabolism Vasopressin regulation of water homeostasis Warburg result

IUPAC

((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2-amino-6-oxo-6,9-dihydro-3H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-ylmethoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxyphosphonic acid

Chemical formula

C10H15N5O11P2

Also called

Guanosine 5′-diphosphate Guanosine diphosphoric acid Guanosine pyrophosphate

Further reading


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