Why is technology not the solution to all scientific problems

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3. The Nature of Technology

Technology and ScienceDesign and also SystemsIssues in Technology

As lengthy as there have been civilization, tright here has been technology. Without a doubt, the approaches of shaping tools are taken as the chief evidence of the start of human culture. On the whole, modern technology has actually been an effective pressure in the development of civilization, all the more so as its link via science has been forged. Technology—prefer language, routine, values, commerce, and the arts—is an intrinsic component of a social system and it both forms and shows the system"s values. In today"s people, technology is a complex social enterprise that has not only study, architecture, and also crafts yet likewise finance, production, monitoring, labor, marketing, and also maintenance.

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In the broadest sense, innovation exhas a tendency our abilities to change the world: to reduced, form, or put together materials; to move things from one location to another; to reach farther through our hands, voices, and senses. We usage modern technology to try to readjust the civilization to suit us better. The changes might relate to survival demands such as food, sanctuary, or defense, or they may relate to huguy aspirations such as knowledge, art, or regulate. But the results of transforming the world are regularly complicated and unpredictable. They have the right to encompass unmeant benefits, unmeant prices, and also unmeant risks—any type of of which might loss on various social groups at different times. Anticipating the impacts of modern technology is therefore as essential as proceeding its capabilities.

Science for All Americans


In the United States, unfavor in the majority of developed nations in the civilization, innovation as a topic has mostly been ignored in the colleges. It is not tied to graduation needs, has no resolved area in elementary education and learning, is lacking altogether in the college preparatory curriculum, and does not constitute part of the content in scientific research courses at any type of level.

However, that situation is currently transforming. There is flourishing awareness that technology functions in everyday life to shape the character of human being. Deauthorize projects are coming to be even more obvious in the elementary grades, and also the transdevelopment of commercial arts and also various other subjects into technology education is obtaining momentum. And the Science-Technology-Society (STS) focus in the curriculum is acquiring adherents.

The job ahead is to construct modern technology education into the curriculum, and usage innovation to promote learning, so that all students come to be well indeveloped about the nature, powers, and constraints of modern technology. As a huguy enterpincrease, innovation has its very own background and identity, rather acomponent from those of science and also math. In background, it predelivered scientific research and only slowly has actually pertained to attract on science—understanding of how the organic civilization works—to assist in regulating what happens in the civilization. In contemporary times, technology has come to be significantly characterized by the interdependent relationships it has via science and mathematics. The benchmarks that follow suggest just how students must build their understanding of these relationships.

This chapter presents recommendations on what understanding about the nature of innovation is required for clinical proficiency and emphasizes means of reasoning around technology that deserve to add to using it wisely. Chapter 8: The Designed World presents values pertinent to some of the key innovations of today"s civilization. Chapter 10: Historical Perspectives, consists of a discussion of the Industrial Rdevelopment. Chapter 12: Habits of Mind consists of some skills pertinent to participating in a technical people.


A. Technology and also Science


Technology is an overfunctioned term. It once supposed understanding just how to execute things—the practical arts or the research of the valuable arts. But it has actually also concerned intend innovations such as pencils, television, aspirin, microscopes, and so on., that world use for specific purposes, and also it refers to huguy tasks such as agriculture or manufacturing and also also to processes such as animal reproduction or voting or battle that change specific facets of the people. More, innovation sometimes refers to the industrial and army organizations dedicated to producing and also utilizing developments and also know-how. In any type of of these senses, innovation has financial, social, honest, and aesthetic implications that depend on wright here it is used and on people"s mindsets toward its use.

Sorting out these problems is likely to occur over many kind of years as students engage in architecture and technology activities. First, they have to use various devices to do various points in scientific research and to fix handy troubles. Thturbulent style and technology projects, students deserve to connect in problem-addressing pertained to a wide array of real-world contexts. By undertaking style jobs, students have the right to enrespond to modern technology issues even though they cannot define technology. They have to have actually their attention called to the use of tools and tools in science and the usage of handy expertise to resolve troubles before the underlying ideas are construed.


Kindergarten through Grade 2

Young children are veteran modern technology individuals by the time they enter school. They ride in automobiles, usage family utilities, run wagons and bikes, use garden tools, assist via the cooking, operate the tv set, and also so on. Children are also natural explorers and inventors, and also they favor to make things. School need to offer students many kind of opportunities to study the properties of materials, to usage tools, and also to architecture and build points. Activities must emphasis on problems and requirements in and approximately the school that interest the kids and also that can be addressed feasibly and safely.

The task in these grades is to begin to channel the students" inventive energy and to increase their purposeful usage of tools and—in the process—increase their knowledge of what constitutes a tool (a container, paper and also pencil, camera, magnifier, etc.). Design and also innovation tasks can be used to present students to measurement devices and also methods in a organic and also meaningful manner. For example, five-year-olds have little bit trouble in creating and making things for their teddy bears constructed to an correct scale. Measurements must attend to magnitudes that are comprehensible to kids of this age, which excludes, for instance, the circumference of the earth or the diameter of a microbe.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 2nd grade, students should understand that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 2nd grade, students should recognize that


Grades 3 via 5

These years must develop on the previous ones by enhancing the sophistication of the architecture jobs that students undertake. This method involves students" raising their repertoire of devices and also methods and also improving their abilities in measurement, calculation, and also communication. Activities calling on the use of tools such as microscopes, telescopes, camperiods, and sound recorders to make observations and also measurements are specifically essential for reinforcing the prominence of the dependence of scientific research on innovation. Just as vital, students must build skill and confidence in utilizing simple devices for personal, everyday functions.

Students should begin currently to compose about technology, particularly around exactly how technology helps people. Most of the complexities of the social after-effects of the use of modern technology deserve to wait, but students need to begin to take into consideration different methods of doing somepoint and compare the benefits and also disadvantages.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the fifth grade, students must know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the fifth grade, students have to know that


Grades 6 with 8

Students deserve to currently construct a broader check out of technology and just how it is both like and also unchoose scientific research. They do not quickly differentiate between scientific research and modern technology, seeing both as trying to gain points (consisting of experiments) to take place the method one wants them to. Tright here is no need to urge on interpretations, however students" attention deserve to be drawn to when they are clearly trying to discover somepoint out, plainly trying to make somepoint take place, or doing some of each.

Additionally, as students begin to think about their very own feasible occupations, they must be presented to the variety of careers that involve modern technology and scientific research, including engineering, architecture, and also commercial style. Thstormy tasks, readings, field trips, and interviews, students deserve to begin to build a sense of the great range of occupations regarded innovation and also to science, and what preparation they call for.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 8th grade, students have to recognize that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 8th grade, students have to understand that


Grades 9 through 12

In enhancement to participating in major style tasks to deepen their expertise of modern technology, students currently need to be aided to develop a richer feeling of the relationships linking innovation and also science. That have the right to come from reflection on the task experiences and also from a examine of the background of science and innovation. Certain episodes in the history of scientific research highlight the prestige of innovation to scientific research and also the challenge of plainly separating science and technology. The Industrial Rdevelopment is particularly essential in this regard.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 12th grade, students have to recognize that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 12th grade, students must understand that


B. Deauthorize and Systems


Engineering is the skilled field most closely, or at least many deliberately, connected through innovation. Engineers solve troubles by applying clinical values to practical ends. They style tools, machines, structures, and devices to achieve specified ends, and should do so while taking right into account limitations imposed by time, money, law, morality, inenough indevelopment, and also even more. In brief, engineering has largely to execute via the architecture of technical systems.

Perhaps the best way to end up being acquainted through the nature of engineering and design is to perform some. By participating in such tasks, students should learn exactly how to analyze instances and also gather pertinent indevelopment, specify troubles, generate and also evaluate artistic concepts, develop their concepts into tangible services, and also assess and also improve their options. To come to be excellent trouble solvers, students have to construct illustration and modeling skills, in addition to the ability to document their analyses, suggestions, and results in clear language.

Gradually, as students get involved in more sophisticated jobs, they will encounter constraints and also the require for making trade-offs. The principle of trade-off in technology—and also more broadly in all social systems—is so crucial that teachers should put it into as many kind of problem-addressing contexts as feasible. Students need to be explicit in their very own proposals around what is being traded off for what. They should learn to expect the exact same of others that propose technical, financial, or political options to problems.

Feedback have to be an additional major concept learned in the study of technological units. Students are likely to encounter it frequently in biology, physiology, national politics, games, conversation, and also also as soon as operating devices and also makers. Students need to additionally learn that innovations constantly have side effects and that all technological systems deserve to fail. These concepts have the right to be introduced in basic form early and gradually become even more influential in the upper qualities. Just as through trade-off and also feedback, these brand-new ideas need to be encountered in a selection of conmessages. Daily newsrecords provide an inexhaustible supply of examples to analyze.


Kindergarten via Grade 2

Children must architecture and make things with basic tools and a selection of products. They must identify a need or opportunity of interest to them, and then arrangement, architecture, make, evaluate, and modify the style through correct aid. They can need assist identifying troubles that are both amazing to them and within their capabilities. After they gain suffer functioning with one trouble, they may uncover their following architecture task easier and also feel even more confident about trying it.

One style consideration to be introduced best ameans is constraints. Safety, time, price, school plan, room, availability of materials, and various other realities restrict student tasks. Teachers deserve to point out that adults also confront constraints when they architecture points, and also that the real obstacle, for adults or youngsters, is to devise options that provide good results in spite of the limitations. In the early grades, kids may be inclined to go through their first design concept with little patience for trial and error or revision. Where possible, they must be urged to boost their principles, however it is more necessary that they build confidence in their ability to think up and also lug out design jobs. When their jobs are complete, students can tell what they like about one another"s designs.

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Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the second grade, students need to know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 2nd grade, students should know that


Grades 3 through 5

Students must come to be significantly comfortable via arising deindicators and analyzing the product: "Does it work?" "Could I make it work-related better?" "Could I have provided much better materials?" The more suffer students accrue, the much less straight guidance they require. They have to realize early that cooperative initiatives and also individual initiative are useful in spotting and ironing out style glitches. They need to start to reap challenges that call for them to clarify a trouble, geneprice criteria for an acceptable solution, indicate possible solutions, attempt one out, and also then make adjustments or start over through a newly proposed solution.

As students undertake even more extensive architecture projects, focus need to be placed on the concept that tright here usually is not one finest architecture for a product or process, yet a selection of options and possibilities. One way to achieve this goal is to have actually numerous teams design and also execute remedies to the same problem and then discuss the advantages and also disadvantages of each solution. Ideally, the difficulties must be "real" and also engaging for the students.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the fifth grade, students must understand that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the fifth grade, students must understand that


Grades 6 via 8

An idea to be developed in the middle qualities is that facility units require control mechanisms. The widespread thermostat for controlling room temperature is recognized to a lot of students and also can serve as a design for all control mechanisms. But students need to discover exactly how controls job-related in assorted kinds of systems—machines, athletic contests, national politics, the huguy body, finding out, and so on At some point, students need to try to design control mechanisms, which require not be mechanical or electrical, that they deserve to actually put right into procedure.

The idea of side results deserve to be elevated at this time, probably by utilizing actual situation research studies of modern technologies (antibiotics, automobiles, spray cans, and so on.) that turned out to have unexpected side impacts. Students should also fulfill even more amazing and also complex constraints as they work-related on architecture projects. Also, students need to become acquainted via many kind of actual examples of just how overstyle and redundancy are used to resolve uncertainty.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 8th grade, students have to know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 8th grade, students have to know that


Grades 9 via 12

Adequate time should be spent fleshing out the ideas of resources (tools, products, energy, information, world, funding, time), units, manage, and also impacts introduced in previously grades. Students should likewise relocate to better levels of important and imaginative thinking via progressively more demanding design and also technology occupational. They need exercise as people and as members of a team in emerging and also defining principles making use of drawings and also models.

New concepts to be presented in high institution encompass threat analysis and also innovation assessment. Students must come to be mindful that designed systems are subject to faientice yet that the threat of faiattract have the right to be decreased by a range of means: overdesign, redundancy, fail-safe designs, more research study ahead of time, even more controls, and so on. They have to also involved recognize that these prewarns add prices that might come to be prohibitive, so that few deindicators are best.

Because no number of preadvises have the right to minimize the threat of mechanism faiattract to zero, comparing the estimated risks of a proposed modern technology to its options is regularly essential. The choice, normally, is not in between a high-threat choice and a risk-complimentary one, but comes down to making a trade-off among actions, all of which involve some danger.

Students should realize that analyzing threat requires looking at probabilities of occasions and at just how poor the events would be if they were to happen. Through surveys and also interviews, students can learn that comparing risks is hard bereason people vary significantly in their perception of threat, which often tends to be influenced by such matters as whether the threat is progressive or instantaneous (international warming versus plane crashes), just how a lot manage people think they have actually over the risk (cigarette smoking cigarettes versus being struck by lightning), and just how the risk is expressed (the variety of world influenced versus the propercent affected).


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 12th grade, students should recognize that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 12th grade, students have to know that


C. Issues in Technology


More and more, citizens are dubbed on to decide which modern technologies to develop, which to usage, and how to usage them. Part of being all set for that responsibility is learning around how innovation functions, consisting of its choices, benefits, dangers, and restrictions. The long-term interests of culture are finest offered once key worries concerning proposals to present or curtail innovation are addressed before final decisions are made. Students must learn how to ask vital concerns about the instant and long-selection results that technological innovations and also the elimicountry of existing modern technologies are most likely to have. But intelligent adults disagree around wise usage of modern technology. Schooling have to assist students learn exactly how to think critically around innovation problems, not what to think about them. Teachers can assist students get increated mindsets on the various technologies and also their social, social, financial, and also environmental results. When teachers carry out expush their individual views (to show that adults deserve to have well-informed opinions), they need to additionally acknowledge alternative views and reasonably state the proof, logic, and also values that lead various other human being to have those views.

Understanding the potential affect of modern technology might be instrumental to people. Technology is not innately excellent, bad, or neutral. Generally, its results are facility, tough to estimate accurately, and likely to have actually various values for various world at different times. Its results depfinish upon human decisions about advancement and use. Human being experience through innovation, including the creation of procedures and devices, shows that world have actually some regulate over their destiny. They deserve to tackle troubles by looking for better ways to execute points, inventing services and taking threats.

Case researches of actual innovations carry out a terrific way for students to discuss risk. There is a huge array of topics: the Aswan High Dam, the contraceptive pill, heavy steam engines, pesticides, public-opinion polling, penicillin, standardized components, refrigeration, nuclear power, fluoridated water, and hundreds even more. Teachers and students have the right to assemble case-examine product or usage commercially emerged instance researches. Good design jobs and situation studies have the right to assist students to develop understanding right into suffer.


Kindergarten through Grade 2

Deauthorize tasks offer students amazing avenues to solve problems, use tools well, measure things carefully, make reasonable estimations, calculate accurately, and also communicate plainly. And tasks also let students ponder the effects their creations can have. For instance, if a team of the children in a class decides to develop a huge shallow tank to develop an sea habitat, the totality class must talk about what happens if the tank leaks, whether this project interferes with other tasks or classroom activities, whether tright here are other ways to learn around ocean habitats, and also so forth. More mainly, young youngsters have the right to begin to learn around the impacts that human being have on their surroundings.

Students at this level are old sufficient to watch that fixing some problems may bring about other troubles, however the social influence matters need to not be pressed as well hard currently. That can overemphasize constraints and take a lot of the fun out of doing basic jobs by requiring too a lot evaluation.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the second grade, students should know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the second grade, students have to understand that


Grades 3 via 5

Students have the right to become interested in comparing current modern technology via that of previously times, and the innovation in their day-to-day stays via that of other places in the world. They deserve to imagine what life would be like without particular technology, as well as what brand-new technology the future might hold. Reading about other worlds or earlier times than their very own will illustrate the main role that different technologies play. Students might acquire connected in current projects concerned technology—saving power, recycling materials, reducing litter, and the like. Waste disposal may be a specifically comprehensible and advantageous topic in directing their attention to the side effects of modern technology.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 5th grade, students must understand that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the fifth grade, students must understand that


Grades 6 through 8

To enaffluent their expertise of just how technology has shaped how civilization live currently, students have to examine what life was like under various technical situations in the past. They need to come to be conscious that considerable transforms developed in the stays of human being as soon as technology gave even more and better food, regulate of sewage, warmth and also light for dwellings, and quick transportation. Studying the previous need to engender respect for the innovations and also constructions of earlier people and cultures.

Both historical and literary viewpoints should be provided to imagine what the future will certainly carry and to reflect on people"s somewhat limited capability to predict the future. Science fiction and novels set in future times imply transforms in humale life that could take place because of yet uncreated modern technology. Stories schosen for this purpose have to raise many type of various worries about the influence of technology, and also students should probe beneath the plot to analyze those concerns. Student groups have the right to formulate and compare their very own scenarios for some future time—say, as soon as they are adults.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 8th grade, students must understand that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 8th grade, students need to understand that


Grades 9 with 12

As said previously, the real-civilization occupational of students as supplemented by instance research studies probably provides the many efficient means to study problems concerned exactly how society responds to the promise or threat of technological change—whether by adopting brand-new modern technologies or curtailing the use of existing ones. What should be avoided by teachers is turning the situation studies into occasions for cultivating a particular allude of check out. People tend to hold incredibly strong opinions on the use of innovations, and also not only of nuclear reactors and also hereditary engineering. The teacher"s job is not to provide students through the "right" answers about modern technology however to watch to it that students understand what inquiries to ask.

Students deserve to additionally include information to their awareness of the effects of the humale visibility on life. For circumstances, they must have the ability to mention numerous examples of just how the advent of international species has actually changed an ecodevice. Out of this should come an awareness that civilization have the right to make some decisions about what life on earth will certainly survive and a feeling of responsibility around exercising power. Students likewise have to learn that people cannot shape eextremely aspect of life to their very own liking.

For instance, most Americans acknowledge that technology has actually offered brand-new items and services, yet not that industrialization of farming, by eliminating the need for children to work-related in the areas, made it possible for them to attfinish school, thereby boosting the basic educational level of the population. These kinds of social impacts must be stupassed away and also those that influence human wellness and the setting.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 12th grade, students should know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 12th grade, students should recognize that


VERSION EXPLANATION


During the advance of Atlas of Science Literacy, Volume 2, Project 2061 revised the wording of some benchmarks in order to update the science, improve the logical development of concepts, and also reflect the present research on student learning. New benchmarks were additionally developed as important to accommodate connected concepts in other finding out objectives files such as Science for All Americans (SFAA), the National Science Education Standards (NSES), and also the esstates or other facets in Benchmarks for Science Literacy (BSL). We are providing access to both the current and the 1993 versions of the benchmarks as a business to our end-customers.

The text of each discovering goal is followed by its code, consisting of the chapter, area, grade range, and the variety of the goal. Lowercase letters at the finish of the code show which component of the 1993 variation it originates from (e.g., “a” suggests the initially sentence in the 1993 version, “b” suggests the second sentence, and so on).A single astedanger at the finish of the code means that the discovering goal has actually been edited from the original, whereas two astedangers expect that the principle is a new learning goal.